Parenting/punishment effects view of authority
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The purpose of this study is to gain knowledge about parental authority with use of punishment and how it affects views of authority. Participants will sign up providing an e-mail address that the researcher will use to send the link for an online survey. The survey will be done through survey monkey. The participants will first receive an online consent form. After consenting they will complete a basic demographic section including: age, gender, and ethnicity, then will receive questionnaires about their primary caretaker's discipline style while growing up and on respect to authority. Participation is estimated to take 30 minutes.
Parenting/Punishment Effects Toward Views of Authority Porscha J. Selley Washburn University Introduction.322* Parenting Types •A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. •Authoritarian parent is one who demands “unquestioning obedience.” •Permissive parenting is one who has little rules or boundaries for the child. •Authoritative is one who combines warmth with positive kinds of strictness. Respect for Authority •Respect is to hold esteem or honor •Authority is a power to influence or command thought, opinion or behavior • People in authority that participants viewed their respect for were: parents, teachers, bosses, and government officials. Questions and Hypotheses • Do people who were spanked compared to children who were not, do they have more respect for authority? • Children who were spanked will have greater respect for authority. •Does parenting styles influence respect for authority later in life? •Students with permissive parents have low respect for authority compared to students who had authoritative parenting will have high respect for authority. •Students with authoritarian parents who were spanked have a higher scores on respect for authority. Results Results and Discussion Method Psychology Students in a small Western city (n = 40) 17 (41.5%) males, 24 (58.5%)females Age: 18-47 80.5% were Caucasian , 7.3% were Hispanic, 7.3% were Asian Measures Parental Authority Questionnaire (Buri) 30 items on a 5 point liker scale “As I was growing up, my parents seldom gave me expectations and guidelines for my behavior.” Authoritarianism –Rebellion Scale (Konh, 1972) 30 items on a 6 point liker scale “Obedience and respect for authority to tell us what to do or how to do it.” Parenting Styles The different parenting styles: permissive, authoritarian, authoritative had different means, but no significant effect. Respect for Authority The overall scores on spanking had different means but no significant effect. Participants who were spanked have higher mean scores on respect toward authority, however, no significant effect due lack of participants. Spanking: 70% of the participants said they were spanked as children, 25% said no they were not spanking as children. Correlations Permissive had views that showed less respect for authority and contempt for obedience. Scored low for questions such as “ The American way of life is so resistant to progress that a revolution is necessary to end its injustice and oppressions.” Authoritarian had views that showed more respect for authority. And valued obedience morally highly. Scored high on questions such as “ Strong discipline builds moral character.” Authoritative fell into the middle between permissive and authoritative parenting styles for respect of authority. Limitations The small sample size was a limitation. Because there were differences among mean scores a larger sample may have helped clarify if potential significant relationships between parenting style, spanking, and views of authority. Participants could be answering in a socially desirable way to present their parents in a favorable light. Multiple measures of parenting styles, parenting behavior, and relationship quality with parents would be useful in future studies to control for this limitation. to answer in a socially desirable way more toward a authoritative parenting style rather than how their parent’s style really is. References Baumrind, D.,& Larzelere, R., & Cowan, P. (2002). Ordinary Physical Punishment: Is It Harmful?. Psychological Bulletin McLoyd, V.,& Kaplin, R.,& Hardaway, C., & Wood D. (2007). Does Endorsement of Physical Disipline Matter? Journal of Family Psychology 21(2). Correlation between Respect & Parenting Styles Immorality of Obedience Familiarity breeds contempt Government Obedience Protecting themselves from other people Government needs a revolution Strong discipline builds moral character Obedience is the mother of enslavement Permissive -.418** .318** -.377** -.261 -.377** -.201 -.353** Authoritarian -.055 .134 -.171 .385** -.171 .423** .176 Authoritative -.015 .222 .322** -.173 .322** .061 .002 Bivariate Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations for Parenting Style and Selected Items on the Authoritarianism Rebellion Scale * significant at the .05 level ** significant at the .01 level Frequency N Mean Std. Deviation Permissive 2.0 106.0 1.4 Authoritarian 18.0 112.6 11.0 Authoritative 20.0 110.4 11.8 Total 40.0 111.2 11.1 Frequency N Mean Std. Deviation YES 28.0 113.7 8.9 No 10.0 107.9 13.3 Parenting Styles Spanking Parenting Styles Permissive Authoritarian Authoritative Means and Standard Deviations on the Parental Authority Questionnaire