A comparative review of cognitive abilities of animals and humans
A review of the various "simple" and "more complex" cognitive abilities that animals share with humans.
A Comparative Review of Cognitive Abilities of Animals and HumansAshley Manis, Washburn University –Faculty Sponsor, Joanne AltmanCopying another’s movements or sounds Birds mimic sounds including human voicesTyack (2008) Bottlenose Dolphins, and African Elephants can all copy sounds they hear Tyack (2008) Baby animals such as Chimpanzees andElephants can copythe movements of theirmothersCorp & Byrne (2002) Learning a new ability by watching another’s behavior Burmese Fowl learned what area of an enclosure is best for feeding through observational learning McQuid & Galef (1992) Mice learned how to open a pendulum door to get a food reward through observational learning Collins (1988) Rhesus Macaques learned how to complete a computer task to get a food reward through observational learningSubiaul, Cantlon, Holloway, & Terrace (2004) Individual Sounds or Gestures that have meaning Honeybees use body movements called waggle dances to communicate a food sourceKirchner & Towne (1994) Vervet Monkeys use vocal calls to communicateSeyfarth& Cheney (1986) Baboons use facial gestures to communicateKummer& Kurt (1965) Macaques use body gestures to communicateMaestripier(1997, 1999,2005) Great Apes all use gestures to communicateLiebal(2007); Pika(2007); Tomasello et al. (1985, 1989, 1994, 1997) Distinguish the difference between items that match vs. items that don’t match Pigeons are trained to choose items that match or choose items that don’t matchBrooks & Wasserman (2007); Wasserman, Frank, & Young (2002); Young & Wasserman (2001) Rats are also trained to choose items that match or to choose items that don’t matchNakagawa (2000) Using objects found to access food like a rock or a stick Otters use rocks to break open the hard shell of their preyEsgate (2005) Capuchin Monkeys use sticks to get their prey out of small wholesBoysen & Himes (1999) Chimpanzees use sticks to “fish” for termites, ants, and honeyGoodall(1964); McGrew (1987); Plooij(1978) The ability to use numbers like counting and quantity Rhesus Macaques can put the numbers 1-9 in ascending and descending orderBrannon & Terrace (2000);Washburn & Rumbaugh(1991) Chimpanzees can count the numbers 1-9 and know the difference in quantity of two numbersFischman (1993) Using multiple sounds, symbols, and gestures in a sentence structure to communicate Great Apes are able to use sign language to show they have languageCohen (2001);Savage-Rumbaugh, Rumbaugh, & Fields (2009); Taglialatela, Savage-Rumbaugh, & Baker (2003) Great Apes also can use arbitrary symbols to show they have languageRumbaugh & Savage-Rumbaugh (1994) Great apes can also understand speech and grammar to show they have languageRumbaugh & Savage-Rumbaugh (1995); Rumbaugh, Warner, & Von Glaserfeld (1977) Humpback whales show language through their own languageTyack (2008) Knowing that one is separate from another; that “I” exist Shown through the Mirror Test Humans develop this at the age of 12-18 months Great Apes and Asian Elephants have been tested and show that they have self-recognitionWynne (1999); Boysen & Himes (1999); Plotnik, de Waal, & Reiss (2006) That another has thoughts and feelings different than one’s own This picture shows theory of mind. The female baboon can sneak around with the male baboon behind the rock because she knows what the dominate male baboon is thinking Chimpanzees show theory of mind through many different experiments one is where they played a guessing gamePremack &Woodruff (1978); Bulloch, Boysen, & Furlong (2007) In this game there were two researchers: a knower and a guesser. The knower would be in the room with the chimp and would place a food reward under a cup. The guesser would come into the room and both researchers would point to a cup. The chimp would have to choose which researcher knows about the reward.Wynne (1999)Vs.Vs.Eats?Decision making Humans develop executive function about the age of 25 because the prefrontal cortex, which controls decision making, doesn’t fully develop until about the age of 25Crone, Zanolie, Leijenhorst, Westenberg, & Rombouts (2008) Set-shifting is the first step in executive function and is shifting from one task to the nextMoore, Schettler, Killiany, Rosen, & Moss (2009) The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task test executive functionVs.Vs.Vs.Vs.Shift toImitationObservational LearningCommunication/ GesturesSame Vs. Different DiscriminationTool UseNumerologyLanguageSelf-recognitionTheory of MindExecutive FunctionVs.Flees? For future research I have a proposal at a zoo to test an Orangutan and an Elephant on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task So is Executive Function the next step to distinguish what cognitive abilities are uniquely human? If not, then it will be very hard to find the next cognitive ability that could possibly uniquely human. Simple Cognitive Abilities that are seen in most mammals and birdsMore complex cognitive abilities that were once thought to be uniquely human but have all been tested and shown in animals