2015 Apeiron Program

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Washburn University
Washburn University
Issue Date
24 April 2015
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Schedule of events
1 April 24, 2015 Schedule of Events 10:00 am Student Registration and Poster Setup Memorial Union, Washburn A & B Lobby 10:30 a.m. – 12:00 p.m. Fine Arts Performance Session Carole Chapel 12:00 p.m. – 1:00 p.m. Welcome Shaun Schmidt, Chair, Apeiron Committee Memorial Union, Washburn B Recognition of Student Designer Israel Sanchez Regina Cassell, Apeiron Committee Introduction of Last Lecture Jim Martin, Professor of Business Last Lecture Bill Roach Professor Emeritus of Business Memorial Union, Washburn B 1:00 p.m. – 2:50 p.m. Oral Presentation Session Henderson Learning Resources Center Rooms 107, 112, 303, 304, 307, and 308 3:00 p.m. – 5:00 p.m. Poster Session and Reception Memorial Union, Washburn A www.washburn.edu/apeiron 2 Last Lecture “Teachers Who Made a Difference in My Life” presented by Bill Roach, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus of Business Dr. Bill Roach was born during World War II. He earned a B.S. in Mathematics from the University of Notre Dame, an M.B.A. from Northwestern University, and a Ph.D. in Business Administration (Statistics and Management Science) from the University of Michigan. He taught at Washburn University from 1983 until 2014. He has also worked as an actuary in the insurance industry and in regulation. Dr. Roach has been active in university governance, and he has been an active researcher. He has also worked on LGBT issues at Washburn. His current activities include volunteering at Lawrence Memorial Hospital, playing bridge, and working in amateur radio. Memorial Union – Washburn B 12:00 pm This lecture is made possible with support from the Washburn University Foundation. This year Dr. Roach has generously requested this contribution be made to the WU School of Business Clubs and Organizations Fund. Past Last Lectures presented by: Dr. Mary McCoy 2014 Dr. Jorge Luis Nobo 2013 Dr. Reinhild K. Jenzen 2012 Dr. Howard Faulkner 2011 Dr. William O. Wagnon 2010 Dr. Ron Ash 2009 3 Schedule of Oral Presentations (HC = Henderson Learning Resources Center) Time/Location Presenter Title 1:05 pm – 1:25 pm HC 107 Mollyanne Gibson Retinol and Beta-Carotene Concentration in Fruit and Vegetable Supplements HC 303 Shaun Kelly The Need for Co-op Health Insurance in the State of Kansas HC 112 Keval Shah, Zachary Smith, and Michaela Saunders What Makes Them Click: Gender, Social Media, and the College Audience HC 308 Tessa Graf Efficacy of Complementary and Alternative Medical Therapies on Stress and Anxiety HC 304 Angela Gonzales T-Town Tacos: The History of Mexican Cuisine in Topeka, 1900-1970 HC 307 Christopher Helt Divine Intervention and Crime Deterrence: Exploring the Effect of Religious Adherence on Rates of Violent and Property Crime 1:30 pm – 1:50 pm HC 107 Jalen Dickson Solvent-Free Synthesis of Biologically Active Stilbene Derivatives HC 303 Jordan McDowell and Amira Akacha Empowering the Lives of Students at Asbury Mount Olive HC 112 Jeremy Ellison Detecting Denial of Service Attacks: Data Mining Analysis HC 308 Shelby Ferguson Patellar Dislocations in Women: The Causes, Treatments, and the Rehabilitation HC 304 James Martin Industrial Wastelands HC 307 Mudasur Khan The Impact of Sentence Length on Recidivism 2:00 pm – 2:20 pm HC 107 Aaron Stadler Detosylation of Cyclic Tosylamides using Na/Hg to Form Azamacrocycles HC 303 Patricia Carrillo Reproductive Travel: Expanding Definitions of Parenthood or Reinforcing the Status Quo? HC 112 Jeremy Ellison Network Neutrality: A Survey Study on Public Awareness HC 308 Jeffrey Hale Meniscal Transplantation: Allograft vs. Scaffold HC 304 Scott Brackey The Atlantic World Beholds the Rebel Túpac Amaru: Narrative Depictions of the Rebellion in the Andes and the Shaping of Memory HC 307 Nathaniel Valdivia Rules of Engagement: Policy or Doing What it Takes 2:25 pm – 2:45 pm HC 107 Hai Ping Sun Further Studies of the Synthesis of Dipyrrolyl- α,β-Unsaturated Ketone Using Aldol Condensation HC 303 N. Bennet Bleil The Role of Barbershops in the Perception of Style and Masculinity HC 112 Rory MacDonald, Nathan Purcell, Sergio Salas, and William Oliver Explaining the Gap Between Computer Information Science Enrollment and Employment HC 308 Lara Doescher Active vs. Passive Treatment for Iliotibial Band Syndrome HC 304 Monica Schroeder Life and Order, Consciousness and Art: Woolf's Jacob and Septimus as “Modern Fiction” 4 (Insert campus map here) 5 Fine Arts Presentations 10:30 a.m. – 12:00 p.m. WTE Denotes Washburn Transformational Experience ►10:30 a.m. Carole Chapel Moderator: Karen Benda Reinecke and Romanticism Caitlin Nicole Ediger, James A. Gutierrez, Meaghan Hartley, and Krystal Lynn Harry Mentor: Karen Benda, Music WTE This presentation will provide a brief overview of Carl Reinecke’s life and most notable compositions as well as explore the history of chamber music. As part of this analysis, Reinecke’s Trio for Clarinet, Horn, and Piano, Op. 297, and Trio for Oboe, Horn, and Piano, Op. 188, will be contrasted in order to highlight the means through which Reinecke utilized the romantic style of the time in his chamber music. Each ensemble will play excerpts from both trios, demonstrating the similarities and differences in the movements of the two pieces. After these examples are given, the ensembles will play the movements fully. ►11:00 a.m. Carole Chapel Moderator: Penny Weiner Rivers Flow Apart Vanessa Nunez Mentor: Penny Weiner, Theatre Race and race relations are topics that have become uncomfortable to discuss. Over the last few months recent events have led many to believe that society as a whole should reconsider the belief that we live in a post-racial society. In Rivers Flow Apart, a friendship is tested through the differences of race and class. My current plan with Rivers Flow Apart is to develop the characters and expand the play, dramatizing events that occur before the scene to be presented. I hope to continue writing more plays and other works that explore racial issues. ►11:30 a.m. Carole Chapel Moderator: Penny Weiner Always the Optimist Jamie A. Schartz Mentor: Penny Weiner, Theatre Always the Optimist is a play written in my Playwrighting class during fall semester of 2014. It is about Naomi, a teenage girl facing the world on her own for the first time. She seeks the help of her older sister, Melody, who is facing her own set of problems. 6 ►11:45 a.m. Carole Chapel Moderator: Penny Weiner Unclaimed Baggage Marissa Nicole Meis Mentor: Penny Weiner, Theatre Unclaimed Baggage is a play that focuses on a young girl’s struggle toward forgiveness with the help of an unlikely stranger. In this scene, we witness the initial meeting of the main characters. Though there is a difference in age and background, both April and Marge come to understand each other and see how truly important compassion can be. The play is meant to highlight that forgiveness is a road, not a destination. This is the first play I have written and am honored to have it performed for an audience. I have learned a great deal about myself as I developed this piece and hope to expand it into a full length play as I further my theater education. 7 Oral Presentations 1:00 p.m. – 2:50 p.m. H denotes University Honors Thesis Project WTE denotes Washburn Transformational Experience Session a Moderator: Lisa Sharpe Elles ►1:05 p.m. Henderson, Room 107 Retinol and Beta-Carotene Concentration in Fruit and Vegetable Supplements Mollyanne Gibson Mentor: Lisa Sharpe Elles, Chemistry The importance of dietary phytonutrients such as ß-carotene and retinol in cancer prevention, vision, development, and cardiac health has been established. However, the efficacy of fruit and vegetable supplements in providing phytonutrients has not yet been determined. The retinol and ß-carotene content in two fruit and vegetable supplements was determined by extracting phytonutrients from the supplements and detecting ß-carotene and retinol by HPLC. Quantifying the retinol and ß-carotene content of several popular fruit and supplements provides the ability to compare these supplements with fresh fruit and vegetables and groundwork for further studies on the bioavailability and recommended amounts of fruit and vegetable supplements. ►1:30 p.m. Henderson, Room 107 Solvent-Free Synthesis of Biologically Active Stilbene Derivatives Jalen L. Dickson Mentor: Stephen Angel, Chemistry WTE Organic reactions, including the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, historically occur in the presence of a solvent. Recently, there are an increasing number of organic compounds reported to form in solvent-free conditions. Research to optimize conditions of the solvent-free Wittig reaction tested different bases, aldehydes with different melting points/reactivity, and the influence of atmospheric moisture. It was found that reactions that afford high-percentage completion and short reaction time were performed in conditions using a low melting point aldehyde and hygroscopic bases while being open to atmospheric moisture. Therefore, in an attempt to connect these concepts, optimized solvent-free Wittig reaction conditions were applied in the synthesis of prospective chemopreventative stilbenoid compounds, (E)- and (Z)-resveratrol trimethyl ether (RTE). As a result the solvent-free synthetic pathway afforded high yield, short reaction time, and utilized a much more sustainable chemical pathway in comparison to traditional methods of synthesis. 8 ►2:00 p.m. Henderson, Room 107 Detosylation of Cyclic Tosylamides using Na/Hg to Form Azamacrocycles Aaron Stadler Mentor: Shaun Schmidt, Chemistry The goal of this research was to detosylate a library of azamacrocycles with complete characterization of the products. Tosylated amine, a precursor to the detosylation, was synthesized through tosylation of the amine, allylation, and ring closing metathesis. The initial detosylation method used was reduction using sodium amalgam. Detosylation was unsuccessful using this method and it was suspected that the sodium amalgam was too strong and that the amalgam was forming a sodium alkoxide with methanol. The reaction solvent was changed to tetrahydrofuran. No reaction was observed after allowing stirring at reflux for one week. While the detosylation reaction conditions were varied, side reactions were made in order to synthesize a new cyclic tosylamide to add to the library. Detosylation was successfully completed on one library structure by switching the methodology from reduction to sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The 1H-NMR spectrum showed that the detosylation was complete with slight impurities. Future research on this subject would include an optimization of the sulfuric acid method in order to proceed to hydrogenation of C=C bonds. ►2:25 p.m. Henderson, Room 107 Further Studies of the Synthesis of Dipyrrolyl-α,β-Unsaturated Ketone Using Aldol Condensation Hai Ping Sun Mentor: Sam Leung, Chemistry H One way to improve photodynamic therapy (PDT) is by using photosensitizers with increased conjugation, which allows the photosensitizer to be activated by light of a longer wavelength. The goal of this research is to synthesize an oxophlorin with an expanded conjugation system. Oxophlorin was thought to have the potential to become a useful photosensitizer because it is a derivative of porphyrin, and porphyrin compounds have been successfully used as photosensitizers. A dipyrrolyl-α,β-unsaturated ketone is the key precursor of the expanded oxyphlorin and the immediate target of this research. Past attempts in using the aldol condensation or enamine reaction to synthesize a dipyrrolyl-α,β-unsaturated ketone have been unsuccessful. Currently, the aldol condensation is revisited as the reaction to produce the desired compound. Here we report the progress of the aldol condensation reactions. The use of N-protected pyrrole ketone with N-unprotected pyrrole aldehyde was unable to yield product. Using N-protected pyrrole ketone with N-protected pyrrole aldehyde was also unsuccessful. Further effort goes towards changing the pyrroles used and the reaction conditions. 9 Session b Moderator: Sharla Blank ►1:05 p.m. Henderson, Room 303 The Need for Co-op Health Insurance in the State of Kansas Shaun Kelly Mentor: Barb Quaney, Allied Health WTE Kansas currently has the highest number of uninsured residents without healthcare coverage. Even with the Medicare expansion that is being brought up before the legislature, the gap would only increase 183% over the poverty level. This still leaves many Kansans without coverage. There is a need for a co-op healthcare plan that is available to all Kansans that is affordable and allows for access to healthcare. ►1:30 p.m. Henderson, Room 303 Empowering the Lives of Students at Asbury Mount Olive Jordan E. McDowell and Amira Akacha Mentor: Rick Ellis, Learning in the Community WTE The Youth Empowerment Program (Y.E.P.) at Asbury Mt. Olive United Methodist Church offers a summer and school year program for at-risk children from a low-income area of the Topeka community. Y.E.P. provides academic and enrichment activities to support the educational and personal success of youth from kindergarten through 12th grade. We have each been with this program for three years where we have provided academic support and mentorship to the students. As the current and future team leaders for the Washburn University students who implement the program we have also had the opportunity to develop programming and events (e.g. history and self-esteem lessons, a clothing and supply drive for the children, etc.) as well as manage volunteers for the organization. In addition to the activities we do specific to the program, we also support the students outside of the program by attending their sporting events and helping them with projects for other things that they are involved in such as Girl Scouts, Young Lions, and programs at their schools. This presentation will describe the Y.E.P. structure and programming; the importance and impact of this program for the community; how we developed sustainable programming and our leadership roles; and, as Social Work majors, how the experience benefitted our understanding of what it means to be a part of the social work profession and the underlying issues that affect our community. 10 ►2:00 p.m. Henderson, Room 303 Reproductive Travel: Expanding Definitions of Parenthood or Reinforcing the Status Quo? Patricia Carrillo Mentor: Sharla Blank, Sociology-Anthropology Human reproduction cross-culturally is a contested realm, specifically in regards to the use of modern technologies to aid in fertility and conception. As a result of certain countries’ restrictions on the use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs), some individuals and couples have begun traveling internationally to receive treatment. Reproductive travel has far reaching implications on conceptions of reproduction. Restrictions on ARTs prompt reproductive travel and consequently reinforce Euro-American views on who may become a parent, as well as highlight the inherent power dynamics between donors and recipients. ►2:25 p.m. Henderson, Room 303 The Role of Barbershops in the Perception of Style and Masculinity N. Bennet Bleil Mentor: Cheryl Childers, Sociology-Anthropology WTE This ethnographic study examines two phenomena 1) barbershops as a staple within their community and as facilitators of style and 2) how masculinity and identity are enacted through hairstyles. Its theoretical framework is rooted in Goffman's research on the “production of self” and explores how it is played out in a subordinate group-barbershop setting. Session g Moderator: Bruce Mechtly ►1:05 p.m. Henderson, Room 112 What Makes Them Click: Gender, Social Media, and the College Audience Keval Shah, Zachary S. Smith, and Michaela R. Saunders Mentor: Nan Sun, Computer Information Sciences WTE We focus on how men and women within the college audience use social media to interact with and influence one another. We build upon the research of others, which suggests men and women utilize social media to communicate for different purposes. By analyzing Twitter data and the results of a survey and of a targeted Twitter-based messaging campaign, we intend to gain deeper understanding of the role of social influencers, by gender, on a college campus. We believe our findings will will have implications in the arenas of communications, marketing and information-sharing in the increasingly social and digital society. 11 ►1:30 p.m. Henderson, Room 112 Detecting Denial of Service Attacks: Data Mining Analysis Jeremy Ellison Mentor: Cecil Schmidt, Computer Information Sciences A denial-of-service (DoS) attack generally consists of efforts to temporarily or indefinitely interrupt or suspend services of a host connected to the Internet, and distributed denial-of-service attacks are sent by two or more people, or bots, and denial-of-service attacks are sent by one person or system. DoS attacks are a major problem facing all Internet connected services, and have been a major problem for years. They are a very simple concept, and for that reason are very hard to resolve conclusively. For this reason more research is needed in this area. I will use the KDD Cup 99 dataset for my experiments which is derived from a dataset provided by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). I plan to use techniques of data mining to uncover possible patterns that could be used by researchers to remedy DoS attacks in the future. ►2:00 p.m. Henderson, Room 112 Network Neutrality: A Survey Study on Public Awareness Jeremy Ellison Mentor: Nan Sun, Computer Information Sciences Network neutrality is the principle that all Internet traffic should be treated equally. According to Columbia Law School professor Tim Wu, the best way to explain network neutrality is as a principle to be used when designing a network: that a public information network will end up being most useful if all content, sites, and platforms are treated equally. There are obvious constitutional issues to be considered if legislation and regulation is going to be successful. If the public is not properly informed what the issues are that challenge their liberties informed public discussion will not happen. I plan to approach this problem in a few ways. 1) Conduct a survey of the voting population to determine what level of awareness the voting public has regarding the First Amendment, the Internet, and network neutrality, and 2) Conduct interviews with informed individuals in both industry and education to determine their awareness. ►2:25 p.m. Henderson, Room 112 Explaining the Gap Between Computer Information Science Enrollment and Employment Rory Robert MacDonald, Nathan D. Purcell, Sergio Salas, and William H. Oliver Mentor: Nan Sun, Computer Information Sciences WTE In this study we investigate why people choose computer information science as a major as well as what deters people from it. We collect data through an online survey of people who are already computer science majors and those who are not. We will analyze the survey results and decide what aspects of the field are attracting people and what parts are causing people to choose other majors. With this information we hope to learn what could be done to get more people 12 interested in the field in order to fill the numerous amounts of jobs that require a computer science background Session d Moderator: Tracie Lutz ►1:05 p.m. Henderson, Room 308 Efficacy of Complementary and Alternative Medical Therapies on Stress and Anxiety Tessa R. Graf Mentor: Michael McGuire, Psychology H The 2014 Stress in America Report by the American Psychological Assocation found that forty-two percent of adults do not feel they are doing enough to manage their stress, and twenty percent are not managing it at all. With stress and anxiety posing major issues for so many, it is imperative to determine which forms of therapy can effectively relieve stress and anxiety. In the present review, research on four complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies will be assessed for their effectiveness in the reduction of stress and anxiety. The four therapies include mindfulness, art therapy, yoga, and massage therapy. The studies reviewed apply a variety of methods and measures across a range of populations. The objective of this review is to summarize the present studies’ findings demonstrating the use of CAM therapies for the treatment of stress and anxiety. Research findings suggest that increasing the reliability and availability of CAM therapies provides relief for many stress and anxiety sufferers, especially those who have not found relief in traditional medicine. ►1:30 p.m. Henderson, Room 308 Patellar Dislocations in Women: The Causes, Treatments, and the Rehabilitation Process Shelby Lynn Ferguson Mentor: Park Lockwood, Kinesiology Researchers have indicated that women are four to six times more likely to suffer from knee injuries than men (Rauch, 2001). Research indicates that 3-5% of all knee injuries in women are due to patellar dislocations, or approximately 29 out of 100,000 clinically diagnosed knee injuries each year (Tsai et al., 2012). Factors including hyper-laxity of joints, anatomical abnormalities and decreased hip and core strength increase the likelihood of this injury. Side effects of patellar dislocations can include knee instability, patellofemoral arthritis, and an inability for patients to return to their normal activities (Köhlitz et al., 2013). Over the past decade, physical therapists and physicians have improved surgical and rehabilitation techniques to increase the success rate for patients. The purpose of this literature review and observational research was to examine the prevalence of patellar dislocations in women, and further discuss the treatment options and rehabilitation process. 13 ►2:00 p.m. Henderson, Room 308 Meniscal Transplantation: Allograft vs. Scaffold Jeffrey A. Hale Mentor: John Burns, Kinesiology WTE Meniscal injuries are common and are starting to be treated with meniscal transplants if effort to enhance the life of the individual. In recent studies, researchers have looked at the benefits of receiving a meniscal transplant and the difference between a meniscal allograft transplant and the scaffold. There are two main criteria to determine how effective the transplant surgery was, pain rating and reoperation rate. Fifteen articles were reviewed to discuss the benefits and disadvantages of both the allograft transplantation and the scaffold transplantation. With meniscal transplant surgeries becoming more popular, it is important to distinguish which transplantation technique is more beneficial to the patients. ►2:25 p.m. Henderson, Room 308 Active vs. Passive Treatment for Iliotibial Band Syndrome Lara Doescher Mentor: Karen Garrison, Kinesiology WTE With initial treatment, passive treatment such as NSAIDS and rest seem to have the most effect on iliotibial pain when compared to active treatment such as stretching and rehabilitation exercises. Some studies have found, however, that a combination of active and passive treatments have been beneficial with initial symptoms as well. Session e Moderator: Ian Smith ►1:05 p.m. Henderson, Room 304 T-Town Tacos: The History of Mexican Cuisine in Topeka, 1900-1970 Angela Gonzales Mentor: Kelly Erby, History WTE This paper presents the history of Mexican food in Topeka by examining how the assimilation and acculturation processes affected early Mexican immigrant food choices. The paper also examines the influences that the early Mexican immigrant had on the Anglo-Topekan community in Topeka. 14 ►1:30 p.m. Henderson, Room 304 Industrial Wastelands James Anthony Martin Mentor: Glenda Taylor, Art Over the fall semester of 2014, I explored the impact of industrial manufacturing on society and the planet through a series of three sculptures. The first piece is a fired-in-place ceramic and steel sculpture that re-lived the Pittsburgh steel industry collapse. I built a slab roller to make the bricks for the fired-in-place sculpture. It uses a 1958 Cadillac steering wheel that was manufactured in Detroit. The slab roller carried over into project two. It is a series of documentary photos showing the impact of the automobile industry in Detroit. The third sculpture deals with modern consumption and its role in manufacturing. The rate at which we consume forces manufacturers to produce at alarming levels. This drives up pollution and creates more for a throwaway society to waste. The sculpture uses a hand-cranked conveyor belt to carry slab-formed cylinders to the end of the belt where they fall off and break on the ground. This is a representation of how fast we consume and dispose of materials in our society. ►2:00 p.m. Henderson, Room 304 The Atlantic World Beholds the Rebel Túpac Amaru: Narrative Depictions of the Rebellion in the Andes and the Shaping of Memory Scott M. Brackey Mentor: Kim Morse, History H George Orwell’s dystopian proverb, “Who controls the past controls the future: who controls the present controls the past,” encapsulates the efforts on the part of the Spanish in the depiction of José Gabriel Túpac Amaru and his rebellion. A war “fought in the realm of memory,” the Spaniards portrayed Túpac Amaru as an anomaly, coercing people into his cause rather than championing popular sentiment. The narrative of the uprising as merely a hopeless and isolated conspiracy proved effective in mitigating interest in knowing or, more importantly, repeating the past. Controlling the memory of Túpac Amaru and his rebellion was necessary for maintaining colonial power and order. Moreover, the representations of Túpac Amaru in Atlantic newsprint and Spanish reports reflected the authors’ own political and social objectives as well as their worldview attitudes to indigenous peoples and their place in society. Ultimately, the narratives and interpretations reveal more about the commentators than a historical Túpac Amaru. ►2:25 p.m. Henderson, Room 304 Life and Order, Consciousness and Art: Woolf's Jacob and Septimus as “Modern Fiction” Monica L. Schroeder Mentor: Kara Kendall-Morwick, English WTE Believing that “in or about December, 1910, human character changed forever,” Woolf envisioned a present and future that required a new sort of literary form, one that would resonate with the modernist character, and express human consciousness. In her novels, Jacob’s Room 15 and Mrs. Dalloway, Woolf uses the characters of Jacob Flanders and Septimus Smith to prove that the characteristics and challenges of the age make the expression of human consciousness even more imperative than it had been in past eras. Indeed, examining the characters of Jacob and Septimus through the lens of the principles laid out in her essay “Modern Fiction,” allows for deeper insight into Woolf’s belief that fiction should seek to express the intersubjective nature of human consciousness, something Woolf believed both necessary and beyond the achievements of past literary ages. Unlike Jacob, who remains trapped in linear notions of time,Woolf believed that if life was to be understood, and new literary art to be created, the modern consciousness must rethink its notions of time and self-expression. Ultimately, I show how Woolf uses Jacob and Septimus to guide her readers in the expression of their own consciousness, thereby enabling them to reconcile the seeming rupture of the past and present, transcending time and recognizing, like Septimus eventually does, that time and beauty, past and present are all fluid concepts. Session z Moderator: Stephanie Decker ►1:05 p.m. Henderson, Room 307 Divine Intervention and Crime Deterrence: Exploring the Effect of Religious Adherence on Rates of Violent and Property Crime Christopher Michael Helt Mentor: Steven Cann, Political Science-Geography In this empirical study, I analyze nation-wide crime and religious adherence data to answer the question of whether higher numbers of religious adherents in a given area results in a decrease in the rate of violent and property crime for said area. The counties which contained 100 cities randomly selected from a nation-wide list of United States cities with a population of 100,000 or higher, were analyzed to determine the rate of crime in said county as well as the number of religious adherents in the selected area. Multiple regression analysis yielded the finding that no correlation exists between the number of religious adherents in an area and the rate of crime, and that certain other variables prove to be superior indicators of crime proliferation. ►1:30 p.m. Henderson, Room 307 The Impact of Sentence Length on Recidivism Mudasar Khan Mentor: Steven Cann, Political Science-Geography In this study, I analyzed the length of time a person served in prison by the likelihood of that prison to be reconvicted of another crime once released from prison. The total number of prisoners analyzed was more than 30,000. The sample size was larger, but parameterized based on missing data, and individuals who died between the five-year span of the original data collection done by the Bureau of Justice statistics. Ultimately, there was a weak statistical association that showed the inverse of the direct hypothesis. The more individuals stayed in prison, overall it was less likely they would be reconvicted of another crime. 16 ►2:00 p.m. Henderson, Room 307 Rules of Engagement: Policy or Doing What it Takes Nathaniel W. Valdivia Mentor: Stephanie Decker, Sociology-Anthropology WTE The law of war has developed into internationally agreed-upon standards set out about what can and cannot be done by soldiers for the prevention of ill treatment and torture of soldiers on both sides ensuring innocent civilians are not killed unnecessarily. After the defeat of the Iraqi army, civilians of Iraq became involved as insurgents, yet the US forces had trouble distinguishing civilians from insurgents. The military command structure responded by loosening the Rules of Engagement by defining the rules so broadly that any activity by Iraqis could be used to justify using force against them to prevent rising US casualties. Soldiers from the Iraq Veterans Against the War (IVAW) describe in their testimonies the civilian casualties that resulted from official policy. Examining IVAW narratives is especially useful to the literature on behavior in war crimes and official policy as the veterans were not only witnesses to the Iraq War, but also perpetrators within the war and crimes mentioned. This research was done by collecting and analyzing testimonies given by members of IVAW during their Winter Soldier event. Through this method I found that members of IVAW used narratives to rationalize their conduct as a result of positive self-concepts following policy while in the presence of media or audiences fused with a hidden pervasive environment ignoring policy and rules with ambiguous orders. 17 Poster Presentations 3:00 p.m. – 5:00 p.m. Memorial Union, Washburn A H denotes University Honors Thesis Project WTE denotes Washburn Transformational Experience 1 Nicaragua Service Experience - The Voice of Poverty and Post-War Delegation Shelby N. Fehrenbacher Mentor: Rick Ellis, Learning in the Community WTE Nicaragua is the second poorest country in Latin America, preceded only by Haiti. Unsurprisingly, Nicaragua also has a huge proportion of rural populations who farm or find other self-employed businesses to sustain their families. ProNica, an organization built upon creating solidarity between Nicaragua and North America, funds many much-needed projects within the country. These projects include orphanages for the at-risk youth of the streets, maternal houses that cut mortality and morbidity of pregnant women and their babies, and small business loans for education and self-sustaining employment. Our delegation had an opportunity to experience the richness of Nicaragua history (including the effects of war and post-war efforts) and help evaluate where that history has taken the people of Nicaragua and where continued improvements must be made. 2 Cognitive, Social, and Physiological Impairments Caused by Mild Traumatic Brain Injury from Contact Sports Alex K. Dowty Mentor: David Provorse, Psychology WTE This activity is a literature review designed to provide awareness of the effects mild traumatic brain injuries can have on athletes participating in contact sports. 3 How Cultural and Societal Expectations Shape Body Image among African-American Women Aquia D. Pusch Mentor: Angela Duncan, Psychology WTE More than one third of the U.S. population suffers from obesity. Non-hispanic blacks have the highest age-adjusted rates of obesity (47.8%). Women who fall into this category may become unsatisfied with their bodies. Reports suggest that the self-esteem and body image of black women is not impacted by obesity in the same way that white women are affected. Traditionally, black culture has been more accepting of a larger silhouette. However, new research suggests a reduction in cultural resistance among black women regarding an internalization of society’s thin ideal. As a result, there is a higher level of eating disorder and body dissatisfaction among black 18 women. The purpose of this literature review is to understand differences in body image among black women. 4 Evidence Based Research Project: Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation in the Prevention of Stress Fractures Cassandra R. Roberts Mentor: Karen Garrison, Kinesiology WTE The instances of stress fractures in the female population is an ongoing discussion. Studies have evaluated the nutritional aspects and their correlation to increased or decreased risks of stress fractures, but most of those studies were based on small numbers of subjects and inadequate controls. This literature review gathers results and information from six scholarly articles in order to gather pertinent information regarding nutrient intake and the effects of the adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D on female athletes. The nutrients that were studied and thought to have impacts on bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, diets high in fruits, vegetables, and iron. The leading risk factors that were discussed within the articles included eating disorders, malnourished diets and endocrinological problems. All of the scholarly reviewed articles focused on females and the impact nutrition can have on their overall bone mineral density, bone mineral content and how this can ultimately predispose them to stress fractures. 5 The Elmslie-Trillat Procedures Effect on Patellofemoral Alignment and Long-Term Development of Osteoarthritis Shelby Lea Tajchman Mentor: John Burns, Kinesiology WTE Anterior knee pain is common and can result from a variety of mechanisms. In most cases the pain is associated with patellofemoral instability, subluxation, and dislocation of the patella. In recent studies there has been an established relationship between increasing subluxation and worsening pain. This literature review discusses results and information from fifteen scholarly and non-scholarly articles regarding the best treatment procedures used to correct patellofemoral instability and pain. The two most common procedures to correct patellofemoral instability are the Roux (modified) and the traditional Elmslie-Trillat Procedure. The most common factors that cause patellar instability in patients include: genu recurvatum, trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, ligament laxity, excessive quadricep angles, tight lateral structures, and/or weakness of medial restraints. In addition, improper biomechanics of the knee joint resulting in patella maltracking, indirect trauma such as twisting and/or direct blows to the knee can result in traumatic patellar dislocations. These surgical procedures relieved pain and increased patient function during daily activities but risk the long-term complication of osteoarthritis. Long-term results of procedures are a vital portion of the clinical outcomes, thus it is important to determine which procedure limits the risk of osteoarthritis. 19 6 Washburn University Campus Wide Awareness of Student Health Services Nathan T. Wellendorf, Tamara L. Boten, and Mallory A. Schmidt Mentor: Tracy Routsong, Communication Studies WTE This is a Senior Capstone project that stems from a campus initiative needed by the Student Health Service Center. The concern is a lack of campus wide awareness of health services that are offered to students, faculty, and staff at Washburn University. This is the first stage of a multi-staged project whose purpose is to determine the campus awareness of the health center and its services, and then a campaign to reach an audience based upon this portion of the project. An outcome of this study would be the creation of a marketing strategy and health campaign designed and tailored to the particular campus audience deemed in need of information. This project is the first step in a multi-tiered interpersonal health campaign. This initial survey will help determine what services the university campus feels informed about, and which needs to be bolstered. The Student Health Center is interested in increasing their overall use numbers and in determining best practices in getting information to their constituents. This survey is essential for the second stage of the project, which is to create a targeted campaign geared at increasing the number of those who use the SHC, or who use particular aspects of the SHC - with conversations from the Director of Student Health Center after the survey to determine the most desired approach. 7 Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients Kristin N. Bell Mentor: Karen Garrison, Kinesiology WTE Adolescents with growth remaining should utilize the traditional transphyseal reconstruction technique rather than the physeal-sparing technique to reduce long-term complications. 8 Nonprofit Volunteer Management: How to Effectively Organize Volunteers that Want to Give Back Amanda Kennedy Mentor: Michael McGuire, Psychology H WTE When non-profit organizations look at selecting and placing volunteers, it is crucial that a volunteer management plan is in place to ensure that volunteers are placed in correct positions and the volunteer experience is fulfilling. I reviewed the literature that deals with both successful and unsuccessful non-profit organizations while also reviewing literature on volunteer assessment tools. Based on research, this volunteer management plan describes the most effective volunteer assessment tools and how to effectively place volunteers in the organization. A major factor contributing to the success of the organization is to identify volunteer skill sets as they align with the needs of the organization. The plan will provide nonprofits an effective way to assess whether their volunteers are placed in the most impactful and fulfilling positions. 20 9 Family Service & Guidance Center: Improving the Lives of Youth Danielle Oliva Mentor: Julie Boydston, Psychology WTE My community service will be done at Family Service and Guidance Center, where I will be shadowing three people in different departments. One of the department is the crisis center also known as CRP (Crisis Resolution Program) where I will shadow employees as they work with clients who maybe going through a crisis and working one-on-one with clients. Another department I visit will be the ECIP (Early Childhood Intervention Program), where preschool children will be coming in everyday to work on behaviors. Finally, I will be shadowing CPST (Community, Psychiatric, Support, and Treatment) which assists older children on getting a job, paying bills, and other important task in life. Each department is followed by a plan that the clients’ team has come up with to further life lessons for children. 10 Learning from the Future: My Internship at TARC and Early Head Start Working with Children Lauren E. Grimes Mentor: Julie Boydston, Psychology WTE I am interning at TARC, working with children at Early Head Start, the PACT program, and the SPARKK program. I interact with children when I am there and try to enhance their learning and social abilities. The children at Early Head Start are infants and toddlers. The children through the PACT and SPARKK programs range from infants to 16 year olds. Every time I interact with them I use skills I have learned in past Child Development and Psychology courses I have taken at Washburn. 11 Identifying Mammalian Interactions and Cloning of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type I UL34 Protein Blaze V. Witten Mentor: Susan Bjerke, Biology H WTE Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1 is a double-stranded DNA virus that causes cold sores in and around the mouth and nose. Utilizing the specific viral protein of UL34, HSV-1 is able to exit the host cell and re-infect additional cells. UL34 is known to aid the virus in the envelopment process, but the other proteins that UL34 interacts with in the host cell are unknown. Experimental pulldowns of UL34 with mammalian lysate were performed on an SDS PAGE and data was collected identifying possible UL34-host protein interactions. Although the host proteins bound to the UL34 were not readily isolated, new procedural techniques and applications were created for future experiments. Moreover, the pGEX vector, digested and purified in this experiment will be used to selectively identify the host proteins that interact with the viral UL34, once the host proteins are consistently identified. 21 12 Personalizing Postpartum Discharge Education Hailey W. Winterburg Mentor: Lara Rivera, School of Nursing WTE When a new mother is being discharged from the hospital, she has a vast amount of information given to her on both newborn- and self-care. Often times she feels overwhelmed by this, when all she wants to do is go home and rest. The purpose of this project was to create a tool that allows for a more individualized, patient centered approach to postpartum discharge education. This postpartum discharge checklist allows the new mother to pick and choose from a list of topics that are subjective between patients, with a mandatory portion that is gone over by the nurse. By implementing this tool it will allow for a more streamlined discharge process as well as an increase in patient satisfaction due to its personalization. 13 Identification and Annotation of Gene Features in Drosophila biarmpies Contig59 Using a Computational-Genomics Approach Jonathan Nelson Mentor: Takrima Sadikot, Biology The genome of D. melanogaster was completed in 2000 and it has since become a model organism. This fly is one of the most studied species in biology and serves as a model organism for studying many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes. In this study, the well-annotated D. melanogaster was used as a reference for conservation-based analysis to annotate and identify all the genes present within the contig59 sequence of Drosophila biarmpies. Using a number of open-source computational genomic tools for sequence alignment, gene-prediction and Drosophila genome browsing, the Drosophila biarmpies contig59 was examined for relevant genomic elements such as genes, pseudogenes and repetitious elements. Contig59 corresponds to the dot chromosome of D. biarmpies and was observed to contain three putative genes, all in the order and minus orientation, consistent with that found in D. melanogaster. Our analysis revealed that of the three genes predicted within this contig, CaMKI erroneously appears in this region only due to shared-conserved domains with CamKII. Thus, in our final conclusion, we state that the Drosophila biarmpies contig59 only contains two genes, CamKII and Zyx, which are both well conserved between D. melanogaster and D. biarmpies. 14 Workflow Model, Digitization, and Summary Data of Washburn University’s Herbarium Collection Jonathan Nelson and Cheyenne C. Bartz Mentor: Jason Emry, Biology Many herbarium specimens take a physical toll through the years of storage, and thus warranting repairs. Ongoing systematic studies require existing specimens to be annotated to reflect changes in taxonomic classification and phylogenetic position. Therefore, a safer way to record, store, and access data from herbarium specimens has warranted the use of digital equipment. The 22 digitization process involves typing in the data for each specimen as annotations are complete and then scanning each specimen to yield a digital picture. Both the picture and the respective data are uploaded to an online database and made available to researchers or other interested parties. The primary goal of this research was to develop a workflow for acquisition, annotation, repair, and digitization of specimens in the Washburn Herbarium. A second goal was to create a status update that summarized all of our records of our existing records and collection history. Taken together, this work will ultimately improve the quality and accessibility of records and ensure that the Washburn Herbarium remains relevant in the digital age. 15 Interprofessional Communication: Safe Patient Handling Jeri Rose Holwick Mentor: Kathy Ure, School of Nursing WTE Interprofessional communication is the collaboration of health care providers who are a part of a specific patient’s care. Physical therapists evaluate the patient to determine the best way to transfer a patient and how much assistance will be needed. Nurses and nurse aides provide patient handling for the majority of time the patient is in the facility. Nursing students are provided with a short one day orientation on safe patient handling at a local facility, whereas physical therapy assistant students spend a semester obtaining knowledge based on safe patient handling. This project will compare level one and level two nursing students. Level two nursing students were provided with a short, one day orientation on safe patient handling at a local facility. Level one students will participate in a two day safe patient orientation at Washburn, provided by physical therapy assistant program staff and students. Level one and level two nursing students will take a test to show that overall, level one nursing students scores surpassed the test scores of level two nursing students. The two day orientation emphasized safety of the patient and safety for the healthcare professional. 16 Suicide Awareness Education for Spouses of Fort Riley Kelita A. Box Mentor: Marilyn Masterson, School of Nursing WTE The current trend in suicide rate for the U.S. military is increasing. It is therefore imperative that strategies to reduce this occurrence be implemented. Thus, this research study focuses on suicide awareness and early identification of at-risk individuals through the education of military spouses in reducing the incidents of suicide. In so doing, a pamphlet geared at educating the spouses of Fort Riley about warning signs of suicide and available resources for suicide prevention was created. This pamphlet was distributed among the spouses at a family readiness group (FRG) tea party, where depression and suicide was the topic of the event. During the tea party, spouses shared their personal experiences and their thoughts on suicide prevention. For future research on the topic of suicide prevention in the military, it is hoped that more spouses will be reached in the campaign for suicide awareness. Therefore, several events such as the FRG tea party are needed and individuals on Fort Riley who are apart of health promotion, must become involve in the campaign for educating spouses on suicide awareness. 23 17 Conversion Disorders Christina Horvatic Mentor: Cynthia Turk, Psychology WTE Conversion Disorders are a controversial topic in the field of psychology. They have been called many names throughout history. Causes of the disorders have been attributed to many different sources as well. Diagnosis and treatment of the disorders are among the biggest issues present today. 18 Student Perceptions Regarding Inter-Professional Education and Appropriate Models of Implementation Lainey M. Faulkner and Jamie Pfannenstiel Mentor: Zach Frank, Allied Health WTE Inter-professional education is an education system that involves the collaboration of two or more disciplines in a joint learning environment. Many models have been used to implement an inter-professional way of thinking into allied health educational programs. While there is research regarding the effectiveness of specific models, there is little to no research regarding allied health student perceptions regarding inter-professional education. Therefore a research survey was developed to gain knowledge of student interest of inter-professional education. Based on the results of this study and review of the literature, it is recommended that classroom simulations be used to introduce inter-professional education into allied health programs. 19 Using Various Art Therapies to Assist the Recovery of Adults with Mental Illness: My Internship at Valeo Tina Brackman Mentor: Julie Boydston, Psychology WTE Valeo behavioral health center is a treatment facility staffed to offer mental health and recovery services to adults in the Topeka area. Their vision is to keep Behavioral Health Care consumer driven, to close the gap on mental health needs and services offered, and provide early screening for mental health. My internship in the Expressive Therapies Department allowed me to work with adults in the C.A.R.E. program. This program gives participants an opportunity to use their creative expression as a form of therapy. 24 20 Washburn University Psychological Service Clinic: Using Every Tool Necessary to Improve Quality of Life Diana Lynn Williams Mentor: Julie Boydston, Psychology WTE Established in 1978, Washburn University Psychological Service Clinic is a university and community based mental health service. The clinic offers a range of testing and individual therapy, in addition to therapy groups. The psychological clinic provides opportunities for undergraduate students to bridge from earning a BA and MA and to becoming student therapists. It offers counseling services as well. The clinic makes available affordable services. This service is offered to anyone over the age of 18 in and around the Topeka community. Washburn University Psychological Service has allowed me the experience of solving problems and dealing with certain issues. Learning from the graduate students and their study groups allowed me to see how "healthy relationships" and communication develop among people. Another group does sports psychology including soccer and creative expressions through art therapy. This has allowed me to become more aware of people's behaviors and the issues they face on a day to day basis. 21 From Positive Connections to Washburn Engage: Making a Difference in the Community and on Campus Micaela R. Sands Mentor: Rick Ellis, Learning in the Community WTE During my first two years at Washburn University, I completed over 900 hours of community activism and engagement work through my association with Learning in the Community (LinC). I started my community work at a non-profit HIV clinic called Positive Connections. Through my work there I realized that there was a need for HIV prevention and awareness at Washburn University. This realization prompted me to approach the staff at the organization about expanding their programming. As a result, my co-workers and I established regular HIV testing days at the College Hill apartment complex near Washburn. It was this work that instilled in me the importance of Washburn and the community working together to have a positive impact on the lives of everyone who calls Topeka home for all or part of the year. This led me to my second project as the High Impact Community Engagement Practices Initiative’s High Impact Intern. Within this role, I was charged with the development of Washburn Engage, a website that connects college students, faculty, and staff to opportunities in the community for service, internships and research. This presentation will explore the impact my experiences had on the community, the campus and my own learning. 25 22 Positive Dynamics & Game On: Encouraging Kids to Be Healthy Alexis V. Yelland Mentor: Rick Ellis, Learning in the Community WTE During the 2014-15 academic year, I worked at Eisenhower Middle School through the Washburn Literacy Education Action Program (LEAP). While there, I worked as an after school language arts tutor, but also helped facilitate a group called Positive Dynamics. The purpose of Positive Dynamics was to show elementary and middle school children how to cook basic food items while educating them about the importance of nutrition. The lessons demonstrated that with just a little knowledge and time, they could create something that tastes good and is healthier than fast food or processed food. Additionally, at the end of each lesson, the children were able to eat a healthy meal before going home at the end of the day. This was important because over 90% of the children who participated in the program were from economically disadvantaged homes and food insecurity issues were not uncommon. On Thursdays, we also created another “club” called Game On which took the health aspect a step further. Game On allowed the children in the program to engage in physical activities while learning about the need for exercise. In addition to physical exercise, the activities we created encouraged the children to be interactive with each other and use critical thinking skills. This presentation is going to be an overview of my experience working with the children in these programs and how I helped make a positive impact in our community. 23 Exploring Cardiovascular Disease in Costa Rica Ashley DeFries, Taylor M. Mayhew, Rachel Marie Dongog, Kathryn E. Taylor, and Tess E. Ingermanson Mentor: Lori Edwards, School of Nursing WTE Our group researched cardiovascular disease affecting the Costa Rican population. We decided to do a health promotion on early cardiac warning signs and symptoms. We created culturally sensitive brochures, written in Spanish, to provide more information and to help us with the education we provided. We also created a few educational posters. We held two health clinics and saw nearly 300 individuals during these days. Our health promotion and education were well received by those we served. We gave them the tools needed to recognize and react to symptoms that could be life threatening. 24 LEAP at Oakland Community Center: Changing Children’s Lives Through Education and Mentoring Wyatt Robinett, Emma Schemm, and Kristen Stinnett Mentor: Rick Ellis, Learning in the Community This presentation will cover the implementation and impact of the Literacy Educational Action Project (LEAP) at Oakland Community Center. This is an after school program that focuses on education and mentoring of elementary school children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. There are 30 children who participate in the program and they are supervised by five adult 26 volunteers from Washburn University. An average day consists of a small snack while reading, tutoring (if needed), an organized activity, and an independent activity (free time). During our time with the program, we have seen the children improve tremendously in spelling, social sciences, and independent thinking. Developing these skills and improving understanding in these subject areas is vital because they are often missed in the general education system. For example, many of the children were not able to name a state at the beginning of the school year, now each child can name at least five. In addition to the improvements we have seen in the academic part of the program, we have seen small improvements in behavior. Many of the children come from single parent homes and often have difficulties in their personal lives. Due to this we have learned how to handle negative emotions and situations and help the children if they are “acting out.” This program does not just provide an educational experience for the children to help them succeed in school, it is also a safe haven for them. 25 SRWC: Promoting Student Wellness and Success Lance J. Warren Mentor: Julie Boydston, Psychology WTE I am an intern at Washburn University's Student Recreation and Wellness Center. I work with Ben Marx, Assistant Director of Fitness and Wellness, and Joel Bluml, Associate Vice President for Student Life. I spend my afternoons meeting working with Ben by conducting fitness assessments for students and then designing fitness prescriptions based on their individual needs. I also co-lead a new wellness seminar called WuWellness twice a week. I am working with both Joel and Ben by creating a wellness curriculum designed to use campus resources to help students succeed in college. The goals of this internship include: designing the new wellness curriculum, continuing to develop skills such as instructing proper ways to exercise, creating fitness prescriptions, conducting fitness assessments, and holding motivational interviews. 26 Integrating Spanish into Nursing Amanda Ann Allen, Caysie J. Beetley, Sarah Brock, and Cari Lou Eichholz Mentor: Jane Robinson, School of Nursing WTE The purpose of this project is to examine the need for incorporating basic Spanish vocabulary and speaking skills into the educational curriculum to health care providers in order to accommodate the ever-increasing Hispanic population. There is a shortage of healthcare providers who speak Spanish in relation to the ever increasing Hispanic population. This is evidenced by the review of literature that will be presented to our faculty advisor, Jane Robinson. The articles indicate a communication barrier and high potential for error when providing care for limited English-proficient patients. Patient safety is compromised due to the inability to effectively communicate. Basic Spanish skills with an emphasis placed on medical terminology would be beneficial to healthcare providers in an effort to establish safe care practices. 27 27 Establishment of Growth Kinetics for Vibrio vulnificus ATCC 27562 in Preparation for Bactericidal Assays Involving Amino Acid Based Surfactants Danielle R. Steffey Mentor: Andrew Herbig, Biology Vibrio vulnificus is a potential fatal pathogen to humans. This bacterium causes primary septicemia through ingestion of contaminated oysters or shellfish. Individuals can also contract this V. vulnificus if open wounds are exposed to marine waters. This Gram negative, halophilic bacterium has been known to cause gastroenteritis, necrotizing fasciitis, and sepsis. This study was a preliminary step in the process of performing a bactericidal assay to determine the effects of using amino acid based surfactants as antimicrobial agents. A normal growth curve for type strain V. vulnificus ATCC 27562 was established to document the growth rate and patterns seen in the laboratory setting. This will later be used to compare results from the bactericidal assay. The results from this study indicate that V. vulnificus grew normally in the laboratory setting under closed conditions. The optical density versus time graphs show growth patterns that are similar to those constructed by others studying altered growth patterns of V. vulnificus. The plate count data showing the colony forming units per milliliter was found to be lower than expected for the 240 minute time point. Future plans are to perform bactericidal assays with several amino acid surfactants. 28 Servant Leadership in Religious Institutions David M. Stevens Mentor: Michael Russell, Psychology WTE Servant leadership is a style of leadership that originated in writings of Greenleaf in 1970, 1972, and 1977. Servant leadership emphasizes that leaders be attentive to the concerns of their followers, empathize with them, and nurture them. Servant leaders put followers first, empower them, and help them develop their full personal capacities. Servant leaders are also ethical and lead in ways that serve the greater good of the organization, community, and society at large. This present study is aimed at determining if religious institutions practice servant leadership within their organization. Participants will include both the religious leaders and their congregation and they will be asked to complete a survey to determine if the religious leaders are currently engaging in servant leadership. Because servant leadership is mainly concerned with empowering, empathizing, and nurturing followers, it is hypothesized that the leaders of these religious institutions will be engaging in servant leadership. The findings of this study will be discussed in terms of the degree of the relationship between servant leadership and religious leadership. 28 29 Effect of Carbonation on Lactate Levels During a Wingate Sprint Series Christopher Teagan King and Dalan M. Pittz Mentor: Tracy Wagner, Biology WTE A quick search on the Internet pulls up multiple articles that explore the benefits and detriments that drinking sodas may have on athletic performance. Supplement companies sell “performance enhancing” compounds that are designed to neutralize the effects of acid production during exercise (versus increasing acid levels by consuming carbonated beverages.) The Wagner lab has studied the effect of consuming carbonated beverages on lactate levels in the blood, during endurance protocols. These protocols allow time for the blood to flow to other muscles, which would dissipate the effects of localized lactate levels. This study is being done to determine if similar results are seen when subjects are asked to perform a series of sprints with increased resistance added. Resistance levels will be based on subject weight and fitness level. Subjects will be asked to pedal at a minimum of 60 RPM until the sprinting period, at which time the resistance will increase and they will be asked to pedal as rapidly as possible. After each sprint interval, lactate levels and heart rate will be recorded. The subject will complete two trials, one drinking Powerade made with plain water and one with carbonated water. We will then compare these two sets of trials to determine if lactate levels and maximal performance data are altered between the two treatments. 30 The Nicaraguan Healthcare System Shelby Lynn Ferguson Mentor: Rick Ellis, Learning in the Community WTE Nicaragua is the least densely populated country in Latin America, with approximately six million residents residing on 130,000 square kilometers. Hospitals and clinics are sparse, especially the further you travel from the capital of Managua. Nicaraguans depend on the three tiered healthcare system:the wealthy receiving care at private hospitals, state workers in state-run hospitals, and the poor receiving care from public, usually underequipped clinics. Programs like Casa Materna, and local natural medicine doctors are working to decrease the healthcare shortage in the country. 31 Bold as Love: Examining the Authenticity of Academic Advisors and Students’ Overall Satisfaction with Their Advising Experience Taylor Michelle Moore Mentor: Michael Russell, Psychology WTE Inarguably, a factor tied to students’ success while studying at a university is the guidance received from their academic advisor. What classes to take, when to take them, and perhaps, even delving into career and personal goals are all important topics. The purpose of this study is to gauge Washburn University students’ overall satisfaction with their advising experiences and to ascertain whether their advisor fits the Authentic Leadership persona. An Authentic Leader promotes both positive psychological capacities and a positive ethical climate, to foster greater 29 self-awareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing of information, and relational transparency on the part of leaders working with followers, and fostering positive self-development (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008). It is hypothesized that the more authentic students rate their academic advisor, the higher level of satisfaction with their advising experience. The implications of the present study will allow for greater understanding of the relationship between academic adv