2018 Apeiron Program

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Washburn University
Washburn University
Issue Date
April 20, 2018
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Schedule of events
April 20, 2018 Schedule of Events 10:00 am Student Registration and Poster Setup Memorial Union, Washburn A & B Lobby 10:30 a.m. – 12:15 p.m. Fine Arts Presentations Mulvane Art Museum Rita Blitt Gallery 11:45 a.m. – 3:00 p.m. Oral Presentations Henderson Learning Resources Center Rooms 118, 206, 210, 217 3:00 p.m. – 3:45 p.m. Welcome Memorial Union, Washburn B Dr. Courtney Sullivan, Chair, Apeiron Committee Introduction of Last Lecture Dr. Shirley Dinkel Professor of Nursing Last Lecture Dr. Cynthia Hornberger Professor Emeritus of Nursing 3:45 p.m. – 5:00 p.m. Poster Session and Reception Memorial Union, Washburn A www.washburn.edu/apeiron AB - Art Building BE - Benton Hall BP - Bianchino Pavilion BT - Bennett Computer Center BTAC - Bradbury TI1ompson Alumni Center CA - Carnegie Hall CH - Carole Chapel FF - Falley Field FS - Facilities Services GC - Garvey Fine Arts Center HC - Henderson Learning Resources Center IH - International House . KBI - KBI Forensic Science Center ...P"i,. KH - Kuehne Hall LA - Law School LC- Lincoln Hall WASHBURN UNIVERSITY CAMPUS MAP 1700 SW College Ave., Topeka, Kansas 66621 • 785.670.1010 LEE - Lee Arena LLC - Living Leaming Center MA - Mabee Library MB - Moore Bowl MO - Morgan Hall MU - Mulvane Art Museum PC - Petro Allied Health Center SB - Softball Fields SC - Stauffer Commons Food Court SR - Student Recreation & Wellness Center ST - Stoffer Science Hall TC - Tennis Courts TV - KTWU Television Studio UN - Memorial Union WC - White Concert Hall WFH - Whiting Field House WH-WestHall WUF - Washburn University Foundation WV - Washburn Village YS - Yager Stadium AA - Alpha Delta A<l> -Alpha Phi Af - Delta Gaimna <l>AE> - Phi Delta Theta <l>E - Sigma Phi Epsilon ZTA - Zeta Tau Alpha ► Accessible Entrance X Entrance Closed 0 Street/Parking Closed Last Lecture “A Purposeful Life: Creativity and Leadership in a Complex World” presented by Cynthia Hornberger, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus of Nursing Dr. Hornberger will share personal stories from nursing, leading, teaching and creating to illustrate principles of complexity science and the importance of the space between us. Living in a connected world described as volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous, she will share humorous insights and evolving thoughts about new ways to perceive, think, and purposefully act to enhance our creativity and leadership. Memorial Union – Washburn B 3:00 pm Cynthia Hornberger is a Professor Emeritus in the School of Nursing. A member of the Washburn University faculty since 1989, Cindy served as the Dean of the School of Nursing from 2000 to 2009 and Special Assistant to the President from 2010 to 2016. Her past administrative responsibilities included leadership of the School of Nursing; and the University Relations, Strategic Analysis and Reporting, and the Alumni Association departments, as well as leading development of the Leadership Washburn professional development program and the Vision 2022 Strategic Plan. As professor her academic interests began in medical-surgical nursing and finished with health policy and leadership in complex systems, and international education. Her research and publications topics included tobacco cessation; heart failure management; the nursing shortage; international double degree programs; and leadership. She is certified as a Lean Six Sigma: Green Belt and as a Clinical Nurse Leader by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Dr. Hornberger previously served as President of the Kansas Association of Colleges of Nursing, and on boards of several health-related organizations. She received numerous teaching, leadership and service awards and is a Rotary International Paul Harris Fellow, a 2006 graduate of Leadership Kansas, and a Washburn University Alumni Fellow. Her academic degrees include a Bachelor of Arts in Human Development, a Master of Science and PhD in Nursing, and a Master in Business Administration from the University of Kansas; and a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from Washburn University. In addition, she holds a certificate in Health Care Outcomes Management from The University of Kansas Medical Center. This lecture is made possible with support from the Washburn University Foundation. Dr. Hornberger has generously requested this contribution be made to the Ellen Carson Nursing Scholarship Fund. Schedule of Oral Presentations (HC = Henderson Learning Resources Center) Time/Location Presenter Title 11:45 am – 12:05 pm HC 118 Tucker Schell, Aaron Spero, Bejamin Wolf, Christopher Ford, and Yuquan Hong Social Media: Propaganda with Bot Automation (Mentor: Nan Sun) HC 206 Shuting Ye and Yueyi Sun Destruction and Rebirth: A Composition of Electronic Music and Digital Art (Mentor: Shiao-Li Ding) 12:10 pm – 12:30 pm HC 118 Isaac Cason, Aaron Morris, and Brandon Habig Comparison of Electrical Efficiency in Cryptocurrency Mining Algorithms (Mentor: Nan Sun) HC 206 Samantha Cockrell, Natasha Manning, and Rachel Hadel Travelling Abroad: Costa Rica (Mentor: Lenora Edwards) HC 210 Heather Ossiander Cultural Communication Competence: A Guide for Residential Property Managers (Mentor: Leslie Reynard) HC 217 Paul Heffren Isolation of the Azamacrocycles Formed from the Detosylation of Cyclic Tosylamides (Mentor: Shaun Schmidt) 12:35 pm – 12:55 pm HC 118 Angela Kiamco, Jessica Lancaster, Abida Syed, and Tisha Prather To Browse or to Purchase: Which Device Is the Answer? (Mentor: Nan Sun) HC 206 Marissa Meis, Brooke Manny, and Claire Leffingwell Mastering the Rule of 33%: Empowering Yourself and the Women Around You (Mentor: Michael Gleason) HC 210 Sarah McILrath Initial Analysis of Scrapers from the Saxman Site (14RC301): A Great Bend Aspect Site in Rice County, Kansas (Mentor: Laura Murphy) HC 217 Bridget Minellono Creating Algorithms to Test Various Expectations Involving Quantitative Modifiable Randomizers (MR) (Mentor: Gaspar Porta) 1:00 pm – 1:20 pm HC 118 Chris Rouse, Mitchell Brattin, and Bridget Minellono FestPoint – An Online Management System for Events and Festivals (Mentor: Nan Sun) HC 206 Hannah Fairchild and Mackenzie Moore Exploring Leadership in Response to Natural Disasters (Mentors: Andrew Herbig and Michael Gleason) HC 210 Lori Holstrom Test Excavations at the Classen Ranch, Meade County, Kansas (Mentor: Laura Murphy) HC 217 Gregory Osuji Creating a Game Using Quantified Modifiable Randomizers (MR) (Mentor: Gaspar Porta) Time/Location Presenter Title 1:25 pm – 1:45 pm HC 118 Tucker Schell, Aaron Morris, and David Schepp Repertoire: A Retro Approach to Contemporary Learning (Mentor: Nan Sun) HC 206 Ashlee Herken Replication Characteristics of a Lytic Bacteriophage Infecting Bacillus subtilis (Mentor: Andrew Herbig) HC 210 Matthew Parnell Greensboro Massacre: The Rise of the White Nationalist Militia (Mentor: Steve Hageman) HC 217 Katelyn Meyer Analyzing a Conflict Model Between Two Players with Few Outcomes and Diverse Strategies (Mentor: Gaspar Porta) 1:50 pm – 2:10 pm HC 118 Jess Wilson and Connor Dean Pitcher's Eye (Mentor: Nan Sun) HC 206 Matthew Benorden Creating a Psalm of Lament for the Bereaved (Mentor: Daniel Petersen) HC 210 Koichi Yoshisaki How Do Young Japanese People Feel About "Being Adult"? (Mentor: Sangyoub Park) HC 217 Kevin Lewis Jr. The Psychological Aspects of Terrorism Portrayed Through French Media (Mentor: Courtney Sullivan) 2:15 pm – 2:35 pm HC 118 Kyle Sell Fantasy Fox (Mentor: Nan Sun) HC 206 Alexus Rodriguez The Mental Music Scene (Mentor: Dennis Etzel, Jr.) HC 210 Brandon Black Cultural Intelligence in a Midwestern University (Mentor: Cheryl Childers) HC 217 Rachel Alexander Improving Education: An Argument for Universal Vouchers (Mentor: Paul Byrne) 2:40 pm – 3:00 pm HC 118 Raju Thapaliya Health Prediction System: A Web-Based Application for Guidance on Health Issues (Mentor: Nan Sun) HC 206 Sam Calderwood Jesus Barabbas: A Marginal Character (Mentor: Christopher Jones) HC 210 Rose Hastings An Examination of the Relationship Between Infant and Maternal Mortality and Healthcare Systems (Mentor: Steven Cann) HC 217 Lydia Shontz The Importance of Differentiating Between Classic Conspiracy and Real Conspiratorial Political Theories (Mentor: Jericho Hockett) WTE denotes Washburn Transformational Experience Moderator: Angela Beatie ►10:30 a.m. – 11:00 a.m. Ichabods Speak Out: A Reading Maggie Jo Hutchinson, Natalie L. Engler, and Lakpa Dolma Sherpa WTE Mentor: Dennis Etzel Jr., English A poetry reading featuring Washburn students who contributed poetry to the book Ichabods Speak Out: Poems In the Age of Me, Too. This book, made possible through generous donations, helps further make Washburn a campus of consent. ►11:00 a.m. – 11:50 a.m. An Exploration of the Modern Brass Quintet Music performed by the Washburn University Honor’s Brass Quintet: Andrew Clapp and Dalton Imoff-Brey, Trumpets; Caity Morris, Horn; Noah Chard, Trombone; Andrew Moss, Tuba Mentor: Michael Averett, Music The Washburn University Honor's Brass Quintet would like to present a lecture recital outlining historically significant works for the brass quintet idiom. This recital would be 50 minutes in length and feature five student performers and presenters. ►11:50 a.m. – 12:15 p.m. Me/You Haley Delgado Mentor: Benjamin Wills, Art For Apeiron 2018, I am presenting a spoken word performance accompanied by a sculptural component. The piece is titled Me/You. My poetry deals with my own life experiences and the connection that can be made between the performer and the viewer. I will stand solitary under a chandelier I constructed out of egg cartons, wood, broken glass and marbles. The poem prepared focuses on my younger years in life, expressing the experiences I had and capturing the atmosphere of those moments with mood-lighting from the chandelier. My chandelier will be hung from a stand of steel that is transportable, so there will no necessary set-up beyond my own apparatus. In order to fully experience my performance, lights will have to be turned off in the room for the two to three minute duration. During that time, my sculpture will change colors to match the verse of my poetry through an LED light that is within the chandelier. My face will be the only thing visible, creating a vulnerability for myself and a secrecy for the viewers. This is meant to capture the ambience my poetry creates and dismiss any distraction that may take away from the performance. Me/You is meant to be experienced within a crowd, viewing a single person opening themselves up to those they can’t see. It takes spoken word poetry and combines it with the medium of Sculpture for a unique experience of multiple arts. WTE denotes Washburn Transformational Experience Session  Moderator: Bruce Mechtly ►11:45 a.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 118 Social Media: Propaganda with Bot Automation Tucker Schell, Aaron Spero, Benjamin Wolf, Christopher L. Ford, and Yuquan Hong Mentor: Nan Sun, Computer Information Sciences IchaBots are used to leverage the application programming interface (API) of selected social media platforms, like Twitter and Reddit, to investigate the operation, strengths, and limitations of social media bots. We also explore options for creating bots without the assistance of an API. After investigating general processes for deploying bots that can target particular users based on their profile content and activity, we set up scenarios to compare the effectiveness of the bots in identifying our target population for each social media platform. This study shows the importance of propaganda bots in a social media landscape and how these systems can be abused to sway the public opinion in events such as elections. ►12:10 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 118 Comparison of Electrical Efficiency in Cryptocurrency Mining Algorithms Isaac R. Cason, Aaron D. Morris, and Brandon J. Habig WTE Mentor: Nan Sun, Computer Information Sciences Cryptocurrencies rely on computationally expensive cryptographic hashing algorithms to verify transactions. Because mining is necessary for a cryptocurrency to function as a reliable monetary exchange, the power costs associated with it must be kept to a minimum to be sustainable. In this research, we conducted experiments to look into algorithmic solutions to sustainable cryptocurrencies. We set up three identical machines and run mining algorithms for three different cryptocurrencies. We measure and log the power consumption for each machine during that time. We then compare the data of the three and test the differences for statistical significance. We report and explain the algorithm that results in the most electrical efficiency. ►12:35 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 118 To Browse or to Purchase, Which Device Is the Answer? Angela O. Kiamco, Jessica Lancaster, Abida Syed, and Tisha A. Prather Mentor: Nan Sun, Computer Information Sciences The purpose of this research is to answer the question “How has technology changed consumer shopping habits?” Online shopping is ubiquitous. Mobile devices such as tablets and smart phones can provide the service needed to users equivalently to desktop computers. In this research we conduct a survey study. Once we collect data, we analyze its statistical results and investigate the common habits of online browsing and shopping. Specifically, we focus on which devices are predominantly used for browsing and purchasing items online in certain age groups. We believe findings of this research will help inform organizations consumers’ technology usage habits and needs. ►1:00 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 118 FestPoint – An Online Management System for Events and Festivals Chris W. Rouse, Mitchell C. Brattin, and Bridget Minellono Mentor: Nan Sun, Computer Information Sciences FestPoint is an online festival and event management system that helps event organizers automate and track tasks, consolidate and organize information, provides metrics for marketing and task management, and allows interaction with different stakeholders in the festival such as vendors, sponsors, and employees. The system is broken into a Vendor section, a Sponsor section, an Employment section, a Stage Performance Section, an Equipment Inventory section, and a Marketing Section. The user will interact with the system from a dashboard that has different tabs for each section, putting everything that a festival manager needs into one place. They will be able to find contacts, send email invoices, track and manage tasks, and download artist and sponsor assets all from this dashboard. The system is implemented using PHP 7, AJAX, MySQL, HTML, and CSS. The system lives on an external server, and is located at myfestpoint.com. With security in mind, we are using an object-oriented flavor of PHP called PDO to interact with the MySQL database. This limits the chance of a SQL injection attack. AJAX will be used to provide the system with real-time interactivity. ►1:25 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 118 Repertoire: A Retro Approach to Contemporary Learning Tucker Schell, Aaron D. Morris, and David J. Schepp Mentor: Nan Sun, Computer Information Sciences Pairing a Java application with a PostgreSQL database, Repertoire is a retro-styled, lightweight digital flashcard learning tool. Users have the choice of loading various dictionaries (in the style of flashcards) into a persistent state profile. Although the application is specific for languages utilizing non-phonetic alphabets, Repertoire is flexible enough for any subject that might require rote learning. The application features multiple modes including a study mode to review mastered and unmastered cards, an inventory mode to examine mastered cards, and a game mode to incrementally prove mastery of unmastered character cards. Cards feature native language characters (which could be adjusted to images in the case of other subjects) as well as background information on the characters (e.g. type of word). ►1:50 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 118 Pitcher's Eye Jess Wilson and Connor T. Dean Mentor: Nan Sun, Computer Information Sciences Pitcher's Eye is a mobile application designed to make tracking pitches robust. Whether it be during a practice or a game, tracking pitches and calculating statistics from the data is essential for every baseball team. This application allows for coaches and players to register an account and have their account tied to a specific team. Each team listing has a list of players that belong to the team and the coaching staff. Once registered, the user is able to track pitches individually and save specifics about each pitch. Once the details of each pitch are entered for any given game or practice, the data are analyzed to produce reports useful to the coaching staff and the baseball players. Pitcher's Eye is developed using Android Studio for the user interface and Google's Firebase database. ►2:15 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 118 Fantasy Fox Kyle Sell Mentor: Nan Sun, Computer Information Sciences Fantasy Fox is an action-adventure game for Windows. The gameplay is similar to the game The Legend of Zelda. The idea for the characters is loosely based on the foxes of Japanese folklore. These foxes are rational and have magical powers. Each fox has a special gemstone that they need in order to use their powers. They are powerless without their gem; losing or breaking it would be devastating for them. Some parents have decided that they should keep their childrens’ gems for their protection. These young foxes will receive their gem after they have matured enough to be responsible. They also must prove themselves by passing a test; aided by their gem. The game will follow a young fox in this situation. A player is in control of a fox and will navigate this character though wilderness and abandoned human buildings. The fox’s task could be to scout out some area,retrieve something, or kill something. The player must pursue their goal while avoid traps and battling other creatures by using physical or magical attacks. Magic can include fire attacks and other classic elements. Tools used include Unity Personal, Microsoft Visual Studio 2017 Express, Blender, and Sketchup Make. ►2:40 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 118 Health Prediction System: A Web-Based Application for Guidance on Health Issues Raju Thapaliya Mentor: Nan Sun, Computer Information Sciences In this project, I have developed a system that allows users to get instant support on their health problem through a web-based system. This application provides the user with the list of diseases/illness based on the symptoms provided by the user. The system provides suggestions for the doctor related to that sickness. Furthermore, the user can view profile and expertise of the doctor related to certain diseases and set an appointment with the doctor by viewing the appointment schedule. The data inside the system are controlled and accessed using the concept of data mining. This application allows patients to get possible solutions to health problems in a few clicks. It provides doctors with answers they are looking for the individual patient and get prepared for it in advance. The healthcare sector can highly benefit from the implementation of the application like Health Prediction System. Session  Moderators: Tony Silvestri and Rodrigo Mercader ►11:45 a.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 206 Destruction and Rebirth: A Composition of Electronic Music and Digital Art Shuting Ye and Yueyi Sun WTE Mentor: Shiao-Li Ding, Music This project is a work of Shuting Ye, a junior of music major, and Yueyi Sun, a senior of art major presenting a collaborative composition of electronic music and art. The work utilizes mediums of Western classical music and oil-painting to create an interdisciplinary digital artwork. "Destruction and Rebirth," inspired by the belief of Buddhism, is the artistic subject of the project. Samsara, in Buddhism, means that death and life do not permanently exist but in a cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. In this composition, the musician explores sounds by using music software and modern recording techniques depicting scenes of life and death. The artist splashes colors on the mirror first and breaks the mirrors into pieces after. This process repeats several times representing the Buddhist belief of the endless cycle of death and rebirth. This interdisciplinary composition is prepared prior to the presentation. The presentation will focus on the artistic ideas and the process of collaborative and creative endeavor. ►12:10 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 206 Travelling Abroad: Costa Rica Samantha A. Cockrell, Natasha M. Manning, and Rachel Kathryn-Marie Hadel WTE Mentor: Lenora Edwards, School of Nursing This presentation is meant for educational purposes in relation to what nursing students can expect if traveling abroad to Costa Rica. Our goal is to draw attention to this beautiful country in hopes that students will continue participating in such life- changing adventures. The three of us, students of Washburn University, had the opportunity of a lifetime to travel with the School of Nursing to help people much less fortunate than ourselves. On this mission trip we assisted in providing free services such as; blood pressure readings, blood sugar readings, height and weight screenings, cholesterol screenings, ears, nose, and throat screenings, as well as addressed skin concerns and other health related issues the Nicaraguans and people of Costa Rica were undergoing. We provided other services as well, we distributed over 500 pairs of shoes to children in need. On another occasion, we dedicated an evening to feeding children and mothers street-side of a homeless shelter. We spent long hours of construction work for a camp for children who are housed while their parents spent days working in coffee bean fields. None of us knew the experience we were about to live nor the amount of love, compassion, and emotion we would endure, we thought we were traveling to change lives and make a difference in the world, while we accomplished that and beyond, our lives were also changed. ►12:35 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 206 Mastering the Rule of 33%: Empowering Yourself and the Women Around You Marissa Meis, Brooke Manny, and Claire Jannette Leffingwell WTE Mentor: Michael Gleason, Leadership Institute As representatives of the Leadership Institute at Washburn University, our group gathered information from a variety of sources related to women and mentorship to be presented at the Ignite Conference. This conference was coordinated by the Junior League of Topeka at Washburn University on January 17, 2018. Our presentation features Tai Lopez’s Rule of 33%, the theory that leaders should spend equal amounts of time with those who are less experienced, of equal experience, and more experienced than they are. This Rule of 33% can be used to enrich an individual’s personal and professional relationships, and we wanted to focus on how women specifically can use this concept to maximize their relationships and leadership skills in the workplace. This presentation will discuss mentorship, supporting and encouraging other women leaders, and how this Rule of 33% can be used to fluidly move through your life using the unique skills you gain from each of your relationships. ►1:00 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 206 Exploring Leadership in Response to Natural Disasters Hannah Mae Fairchild and Mackenzie Moore WTE Mentors: Andrew Herbig, Biology; Michael Gleason, Leadership Institute In 2017, a Category 4 hurricane, Harvey, affected southern Texas reaching 130 mile per hour winds. It was estimated that Hurricane Harvey did $125 billion worth of damage. We organized a service trip to Texas in January in response to this natural disaster. As volunteers, we assisted with rebuilding and demolishing homes and moving furniture for those in need. During the trip, the group worked in conjunction with Habitat for Humanity and Operation Blessings. The trip reinforced how important it is to have leadership in times of need, specifically servant leadership. Servant leadership begins with the desire to serve first and lead second. ►1:25 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 206 Replication Characteristics of a Lytic Bacteriophage Infecting Bacillus subtilis Ashlee M. Herken Mentor: Andrew Herbig, Biology Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect bacteria and are the most abundant microorganisms on Earth. Lytic phages replicate within the bacterium and are released into the environment upon lysing the cell. Use of lytic phages has been proposed as an alternative to treat antibiotic resistant bacteria and has been employed to control food-borne bacterial pathogens. We have begun to characterize a bacteriophage isolated from creek bed sediment on a farm in southeast Kansas. This phage infects Bacillus subtilis and forms opaque to clear plaques on a lawn of cells. Preliminary data reveals adsorption of the phage to the cell within 20 minutes. Investigation of growth kinetics indicates that this phage has a latent time of approximately 60 minutes, lyses B. subtilis cells by 100 minutes, and results in a burst size of ~200 phage particles per cell. Transmission electron microscopy results reveal that the phage is a Siphoviridae in the Caudovirales family. In addition to these results, we have preliminary data characterizing the genome of this phage by restriction endonuclease analysis. ►1:50 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 206 Creating a Psalm of Lament for the Bereaved Matthew Benorden WTE Mentor: Daniel Petersen, Social Work At times, individual persons and groups are unable to process their grief in a meaningful way. They get "stuck" and do not know how to express their grief. In this process, individuals travel through a short, but established outline forming their own unique group lament. The process includes five parts: (1) Address and introductory cry; (2) Complaint or lament; (3) Confession of trust; (4) Prayer for deliverance, and; (5) Praise. After the group contributes to each part of the outline, the facilitator will then take the contributions and write a distinctive, fluid lament. That finished product is then given to each group member. By doing this, individuals are able to share with "gut-level" honesty within a setting of acceptance and vulnerability. ►2:15 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 206 The Mental Music Scene Alexus N. Rodriguez WTE Mentor: Dennis Etzel Jr., English This oral presentation shows the research and practice of how music therapy helps with one's mental health. As members of Hope Through Headphones, we strive to not only create a support system for students working with their mental illnesses, but we also work to create an area of education and awareness within all students around campus. Our research shows that music is a form of sensory stimulation that provokes responses due to familiarity, predictability, and feelings of security associated with it. The aim of music therapy is to help individuals develop relationships and address issues they may not be able to address using words alone. We took this into practice by designing, planning, and implementing a community concert to encourage the use of music for mental health. As college students, we want to continue on our mission to “provide mental health education and support to students using music to connect and inspire.” ►2:40 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 206 Jesus Barabbas: A Marginal Character Sam Calderwood Mentor: Christopher Jones, Philosophy For centuries the Barabbas scene in the Passion narrative has been misinterpreted by Christians. Shedding light on this misinterpretation would led to a clearer understanding of the passion narrative and the objective that the authors of the gospels were trying to achieve. Horace Riggs Jr. in 1945, illuminates the problem of the Barabbas scene, ultimately concluding that Barabbas in not a real person, but is rather Jesus Christ by another name. Though Riggs’ position is correct in saying Barabbas is not a real person, his conclusion that Barabbas is Jesus by another name is incorrect. Through evaluation and reference to the Hebrew Bible and extra-Biblical texts, I argue instead that Barabbas is not a real person, but rather a literary creation used as an illustrative instrument to give reference to the scapegoat ritual found in Leviticus 16. Viewing the Barabbas scene in this light will provide a better understanding of what is trying to be achieved by the authors of the gospels by including this scene in the passion narrative. Session  Moderators: Leslie Reynard and Tracie Lutz ►12:10 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 210 Cultural Communication Competence: A Guide for Residential Property Managers Heather Ossiander WTE Mentor: Leslie Reynard, Communication Studies This project in applied communication theory uses the case method to examine communication challenges often experienced by practitioners in the multi-housing rental industry. Managers must be prepared to work with increasingly diverse cultures whose first introduction to American laws and life-practices often occurs within their apartment community.This study applies theories and concepts from Organizational CN, Organizational Rhetoric, and Intercultural CN as the basis for a training manual oriented to use by managers of residential properties. Focus areas include cultural sensitivity, facilitating processes of conflict and change, and rhetorical strategies to meet and overcome difficult situations that can arise when working with individuals who have moved to the United States from another country. ►12:35 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 210 Initial Analysis of Scrapers from the Saxman Site (14RC301): A Great Bend Aspect Site in Rice County, Kansas Sarah McILrath WTE Mentor: Laura Murphy, Sociology & Anthropology The Saxman site (14RC301) is a Great Bend Aspect (AD 1400-1700) camp or village site in Rice County, Kansas. The site was surface-collected and excavated by Mike Weimer in the late 1960s. Weimer donated 1,198 artifacts to the Kansas State Historical Society. Of these artifacts, 316 were classified as scrapers. Here we present an initial analysis of the scrapers; they were organized by material type, and then measured, weighed, and described, to include the number of worked edges. Of 278 identified scrapers, the most prevalent material type was Permian chert at 61%, followed by Smoky Hill Jasper at 12%, suggesting that most of the lithic material was local and expedient; however 16% was Alibate material from Texas. Of 366 scrapers, the average weight was 6.4 grams, maximum length is 110 mm, width is 52 mm, and thickness is 17 mm suggesting these scrapers were used to the point of discard. However, the range in size (e.g.110 mm long to 12 mm short) may indicate specialized or expedient tools. Both the size and number of scrapers may indicate the site was an intensive hide production center as well. Through the analysis of a donated collection, we hope to enrich our understanding of the use of scrapers at this Proto-Wichita site and how these tools relate to everyday women’s tasks with hide working. ►1:00 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 210 Test Excavations at the Classen Ranch, Meade County, Kansas Lori L. Holstrom WTE Mentor: Laura Murphy, Sociology & Anthropology In July 2017, we conducted survey and test excavations at the Classen Ranch, located 15 miles south of the town of Meade, Kansas, as part of an archaeological field school with Washburn University and the Odyssey program at the University of Kansas. Here, we documented and excavated a hearth feature (14MD101) within a buried soil between 50 and 80 cm below surface near the Sandy Creek cutbank, a low-order tributary of the Cimarron River. The feature contained charcoal, fire cracked rock, burned bone fragments, an antelope-sized jaw bone, and chipped-stone. My ongoing research of the site has been to clean, catalogue, and tabulate the artifacts excavated from the site. As well as researching literature about Claude Hibbard and archaeological excavations within the region. I also helped prepare two charcoal samples we sent to a lab in Illinois for radiocarbon dating. These two charcoal samples yielded AMS14C uncalibrated ages of 780 +/-15 and 790 +/- 20 BP. These initial test excavations add to our knowledge about the lives of late-Holocene High Plains hunter-gatherers and their environment, of which we have little evidence of in the archaeological record. ►1:25 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 210 Greensboro Massacre: The Rise of the White Nationalist Militia Matthew Louis Parnell WTE Mentor: Steve Hageman, History The 1979 Greensboro Massacre showed America the brutish and violent nature of white nationalist organizations. The Massacre is the result of a long history of Neo-Nazi and Klan organizations intermingling and exchanging ideas. In this exchange of ideas and ideology, a militant fervor overtook hold over the white nationalists. This presentation will trace the development of militant white supremacy in the mid-twentieth century. The Greensboro Massacre will act as a climax that filters through all the development since the fifties. Starting with the death of George Lincoln Rockwell, the founder of the American Nazi Party, white nationalism within American began long process that resulted in outbreaks of radicalized and ideological violence. For many, the American Nazis were viewed as just another political organization until this time. For many, the Greensboro Massacre acted as a painful reminder that white nationalism still existing in America and it was changing. This presentation will demonstrate the changing tide of white militia groups from the fifties all the way until the late seventies and early eighties. ►1:50 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 210 How Do Young Japanese People Feel About "Being Adult"? Koichi Yoshisaki WTE Mentor: Sangyoub Park, Sociology & Anthropology This research explores how Japanese young people understand the meaning of adulthood in an age of uncertainty. At the same time, this study examines whether Japan has a new social stage, “emerging adulthood” as part of growing-up process. Previous studies highlight that the transition to adulthood for young Americans is very hard due to economic turbulence over the past 10 years, thus the need to change the timetable for transitioning from adolescent to adulthood. Compared to the U.S, many Japanese young people have encountered a gloomier economic downturn for much longer, causing turmoil for adolescents entering adulthood. This cross-cultural research will shed some light on how being adult is defined and redefined outsides the U.S. ►2:15 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 210 Cultural Intelligence in a Midwestern University Brandon D. Black WTE Mentor: Cheryl Childers, Sociology & Anthropology Over the last five years or so, researchers (see Earley and Mosakowski 2004; Thomas 2006; Ang et al. 2007) have used the concept of “cultural intelligence” to facilitate mutual understanding between cultural groups. Cultural intelligence is defined as “a person’s capability to adapt as s/he interacts with others from different cultural regions (Ang et al. 2007:337). Being culturally intelligent allows individuals to meet other individuals “where they are at” by using their cultural knowledge to interpret the situation. It is important to integrate cultural intelligence into everyday routines. Universities are places where cultural intelligence should be applied (Ancis, Sadlecek, and Mohr 2000; Otten 2003). In Topeka, the administrators of Washburn University promote it as being diverse and where all cultural groups are welcomed and nurtured. This study is to explore the level of cultural intelligence of administrators and employees who interact regularly with students. Culturally intelligent administrators and support personnel in any university increases the likelihood of providing students with a well-rounded education that prepares them for a diverse, dynamic world. In this study we generated a survey that selected academic staff and non-academic staff at Washburn will fill out through Survey Monkey that asks a series of questions that will determine if and how culturally intelligent they truly are. ►2:40 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 210 An Examination of the Relationship Between Infant and Maternal Mortality and Healthcare Systems Rose Hastings Mentor: Steven Cann, Political Science In this study, an analysis was conducted in order to determine whether the type of healthcare used by a nation (universal, private, etc.) had an effect on the infant and maternal mortality rates of that nation. Forty-seven countries were surveyed, looking at both different factors of maternal and infant health, as well as other factors that could contribute to lower survival rates for mothers and children. Overall, it was discovered that those countries that had higher levels of public spending on healthcare had lower infant and maternal mortality rates than those nations with higher private spending on healthcare. Session  Moderators: Steve Cann and Miguel Gonzalez-Abellas ►12:10 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 217 Isolation of the Azamacrocycles Formed from the Detosylation of Cyclic Tosylamides Paul M. Heffren Mentor: Shaun Schmidt, Chemistry Azamacrocycles are used in medical imaging and treatment. The synthesis of these structures requires that the amine groups in the structure be protected from side reactions. Acid hydrolysis deprotection from tosylamide to amine is problematic, but microwave-assisted deprotection has shown promise. Microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis of tosylamides was investigated using varying solvent composition and heating schemes. Microwave-assisted base hydrolysis using high-boiling solvent was tested as an alternative. In both major microwave-assisted schemes, an Anton Paar Monowave 400 pressurized microwave reactor was used. In addition, reductive cleavage methods were explored using sodium naphthalenide at standard temperature and pressure. Complete deprotection was achieved using microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. Microwave-assisted base hydrolysis and reductive deprotection produced a mixture of partially deprotected tosylamides and unknown side-products. While complete deprotection was achieved using microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis, the reactor vessel remained pressurized after the heating cycle was complete, and most of the reaction mixture was lost due to explosive effervescence of the mixture. Future investigations will focus on optimization of this procedure and its compatibility with the pressurized reaction system. ►12:35 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 217 Creating Algorithms to Test Various Expectations Involving Quantitative Modifiable Randomizers (MR) Bridget Minellono Mentor: Gaspar Porta, Mathematics and Statistics My focus is calculating expectations regarding conflicts using quantified Modifiable Randomizers (MR). Working within a setting in which we compare the outputs of two or more quantified MR, I developed algorithms, simulations, and models that carry out a variety of these dynamics—giving access to empirical data regarding their behavior. A great deal of emphasis is placed on streamlining strategies and comparing fixed strategies with adaptive strategies. Additionally, I present recursive programs that I created to calculate the exact expectations (the probability of any one side ‘winning’) of outcomes of conflicts in these settings. Finally, I explore search algorithms to find five and seven rock-paper-scissors-like cycles. ►1:00 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 217 Creating a Game Using Quantified Modifiable Randomizers (MR) Gregory N. Osuji WTE Mentor: Gaspar Porta, Mathematics and Statistics I coded a virtual game using Modifiable Randomizers (MR). The MR are used in conjunction with a schedule of implementation of modifications to create a dynamic that has a high player decision moment ratio. The user interface allows single player and PVP settings, and an adventure that grows with a randomly influenced predictive growth curve allows for simple scenarios within which the player gages their strategies and effectiveness during the decision points. This is the first stage in an ongoing game design project. ►1:25 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 217 Analyzing a Conflict Model Between Two Players with Few Outcomes and Diverse Strategies Katelyn Meyer WTE Mentor: Gaspar Porta, Mathematics and Statistics I was interested in the simplest way to model a conflict between two players. Modifiable randomizers gave me a simple environment within which I could explore this type of dynamic. We designed an experiment with few outcomes but with an infinite number of possibilities as a parameter went to infinity, which involves long strings of repetitions of these outcomes. I am going to show you some of the remarkable results we were able to conclude! In particular I will describe elements of our exploration that had to do with “strategy”. ►1:50 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 217 The Psychological Aspects of Terrorism Portrayed Through French Media Kevin L. Lewis Jr. WTE Mentor: Courtney Sullivan, Modern Languages Terrorism has become a problem that has proliferated in recent years. It has struck several nations throughout the past decade and has no indication of stopping. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and apply what we can learn from terrorism in the past and use it to analyze how we can better combat terrorism. One of the most prominent purveyors of thoughts, feelings, and international sentiments is the media, with film being one of the most powerful. Film can be seen as a mirror that reflects the public’s anxiety about terrorism. In the two films that I address, Made in France and Nocturama, we can see the psychological aspects of terrorism play out. The two films illustrate the role of group dynamics within terrorist organizations, the need for brotherhood or family, and the desire to fight for a greater cause. Overall these films reflect these psychological traits from what we see in the real world today. These films help us understand the mindset of terrorists and understanding is crucial to being able to combat and fix the root causes of terrorism. While entertainment is certainly a factor in the creation of these films, is there anything we can glean from these films to better contain the threat of terrorism? ►2:15 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 217 Improving Education: An Argument for Universal Vouchers Rachel Alexander WTE Mentor: Paul Byrne, School of Business This paper looks at how universal vouchers might improve the current school system in America. The paper takes a theoretical approach with empirical data integrated throughout. It looks at the problems that exist in the current American school system how universal vouchers could address the problems. It examines real voucher programs' effects and why the stated effects may be understating the benefits of the vouchers. The paper addresses changes that would occur within the market for school teachers. Finally it addresses objections from dissenters and why the objections may not be as much of a concern as they are believed to be. ►2:40 p.m. Henderson Learning Resources Center, Room 217 The Importance of Differentiating Between Classic Conspiracy and Real Conspiratorial Political Theories Lydia R. Shontz WTE Mentor: Jericho Hockett, Psychology While certain aspects of the term “conspiracy theories” are generally accepted, the term itself lacks a definition, especially when practically applied. Experts have attempted to fill this gap, with the term “conspiracy theory” becoming multi-categorical to account for varying validity, content, and viewpoints. We concur that a division of conspiracy theories is appropriate, however, we propose a more objective split. Our proposition is that the most imperative features dividing conspiracy theories are authenticity and falsifiability. While some conspiracies subscribe to a classic, perhaps paranoid explanatory pattern, others are more realistic. Real conspiracies do happen within our political and social structure, but by referring to all conspiracies in the same vein, we are dismissing investigation into tangible conspiratorial activities. Thus, we are proposing a framework developed from a multitude of academic texts to assist in distinguishing between paranoid and practical conspiracies. Arguments to the validity are addressed as well as necessity and positive outcomes of such a split. We also discuss theoretical gaps, and possible future research beyond the literature review. WTE denotes Washburn Transformational Experience 1 Propositional Logic Expression Parser and Evaluator Derek Jase Wright Mentor: Bruce Mechtly, Computer Information Sciences This project utilizes a java program that implements Dijkstra’s Shunting-yard algorithm to parse a logic expression. Dijkstra’s shunting-yard algorithm uses stacks to convert expressions from infix to postfix notation. It does this by pushing operators onto a stack, then popping them off once they have the correct number of expected variables. This program uses the algorithm to create an expression in postfix notation. The program then uses the postfix notation to evaluate the expression and display a truth table for the possible values of the variables. 2 Health & Willpower Experiment Alex L. Hothan WTE Mentor: Michael Russell, Psychology Over the years, there have been several advancements in the fields of weight loss and exercise. While ways to improve our health have increased, the struggles of maintaining our health or changing unhealthy lifestyles remain. With regards to college students, higher numbers of work hours and/or college credit hours can consume much of the day, leaving little energy and time for keeping their bodies healthy. It has been shown that increased stress and lower willpower are correlated with unhealthy lifestyles and increased struggles with improving overall health. On the contrary, healthier people are known for expressing higher willpower and self-efficacy. The current study examines the relationship between our self-perceived willpower, self-efficacy, and how they relate to the achievement of health goals. Participants are first surveyed on their schedules, self-perceived willpower, and self-efficacy. Measurements of weight, BMI, and fat percentage are then recorded for baseline measurements of health. These measurements are taken at time one and then again after five weeks. Discussion will be given to (1) the interrelationship between self-efficacy, willpower, and the obtainment of a healthier self, and (2) a theoretical argument for enhancing success for those seeking to be healthier. 3 Women in Leadership: Steps to Success Allison Elsbernd WTE Mentor: JuliAnn Mazachek, Leadership Institute This literature review explores the position that women hold as leaders and how to best involve women in more leadership positions. Women are not represented equally throughout leadership roles within organizations. Many studies believe this to be because of gender roles that restrict women from being seen as effective leaders. Women are seen as more nurturing and collaborative, while men are controlling and demanding. This idea is challenged when women take on leadership roles that require the traits that are thought to be masculine, leading to a negative impression to subordinates. However, when looking at genders, men and women are comparable in their abilities. Both genders are capable of being effective leaders, each having the traits that are necessary for leaders. With this knowledge, there are steps that can be taken within companies and workers to help bridge the gender gap such as training, approaches to the topic, and mentoring. 4 Group Division Making in Small Business and Management Techniques Alex Edward Head WTE Mentor: Kevin O'Leary, Communication Studies My presentation will discuss and review different management theories and take a look at how communication and division making is achieved. I will examine approximately five to ten different management theories and and see how they fit in with different businesses. I am writing a paper approximately 6 to 8 pages on this topic. My major is integrated studies with business and communication focuses including a fine art minor. I feel this project allows me to dimonstrate the use of all of those while also preparing me for the world outside of college. 5 Depictions of the Effects of French Colonialism in Recent Haitian and Martinican Literature Ailyn Castillo Najera Mentor: Courtney Sullivan, Modern Languages There is no doubt that the exploration of the New World greatly harmed the native people of the unexplored lands. With the arrival of the colonists came heinous acts such as slavery, rape, and genocide. Today, these acts form a part of history that is often forgotten. Yet, it must be known that the colonization that took place years ago continues to affect people today—specifically, people of color. Thus, by using literary works such as Le Livre d’Emma (The Book of Emma) and La Rue Cases Nègres (Black Shack Alley) this project will explore how French colonialism in Haiti and Martinique continues to affect people of color. For instance, poverty, lack of education, racism and colorism are all product of the colonization that took place centuries ago. Along with presenting these issues, this paper searches for answers as to how society can heal the scars of slavery while solving the current issues we have at hand. 6 Marijuana and Crime Rates William P. Haynes WTE Mentor: Steven Cann, Political Science In 1996 California became the first state to legalize marijuana for medical use. The trend continued and even though today the federal government still considers marijuana a schedule 1 narcotic, over 29 states including Washington D.C. have legalized the drug for medical purposes. Eight states have even gone as far as to legalize the drug for recreational sale and consumption. The purpose of this analysis is to determine what effect, if any, statewide medical marijuana legislation has on total property crime in the United States. By using a time series analysis with multiple regressions it has been determined that there is a strong correlation between the number of states that have enacted medical marijuana policies and the reduction of the total U.S. property crime rate over time. 7 Analysis of Melamine in Pet Food Using Gold Nanoparticles and UV-Vis Spectroscopy Elizabeth K. Goodrow WTE Mentor: Seid Adem, Chemistry The purpose of this research is to develop a colorimetric sensor using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to detect the presence of melamine in solid pet food samples. Due to its low cost and high nitrogen content, there has been evidence that melamine has been illegally added to various products to falsely increase the apparent protein content. The currently used methods of detection are expensive, time-consuming, and require skilled personnel. Thus, there is a need to develop cheap, fast, and portable technique to detect and analyze melamine contamination. Techniques based on gold nanoparticles are being developed for this purpose. When GNPs are in their colloidal state they exhibit a wine-red color, however, in the presence of melamine, GNPs aggregate which causes the solution to change color to blue or purple. The aggregation-based change in color can also be monitored through the use of UV-Vis spectroscopy. In the presence of melamine, the absorption band of GNPs shifts from 520 nm to above 750 nm. The limit of detection for this method was determined to be 0.12 ppm. 8 Forensic Fiber Analysis of Vehicle Interiors for Possible New Forensic Database Katlyn J. Hays WTE Mentor: Holly O'Neill, Chemistry In the world of forensics, databases are frequently utilized as tools for comparison with case evidence either for identification of evidence or to assist in narrowing down a list of potential suspects. Currently, however, there is no database for the interior fabrics of vehicles, though many crimes are committed in vehicles. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential usefulness of such a database. Interior fibers from a randomly chosen sample set of vehicles (5 different makes and models) were collected and characterized using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and relative refractive index comparison. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy was then used in transmission mode to help identify the vibrational modes of the functional groups in each fiber and assign each fiber to a polymer fiber class (if indeed they were man made). Results show that 3 major classes of fibers are used in vehicle interiors including polyester (PET), polypropylene and nylon, although more data is needed to determine if there is a general trend for fiber classes used in certain makes and models of vehicles. 9 Morita Therapy Seminar on Outpatient Counseling Leandra Hamm WTE Mentor: Jericho Hockett, Psychology Morita Therapy is an Eastern therapy modality that is not widely practiced in the United States. I was able to attend a conference at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington in May of 2017. The conference hosted Dr. Peg LeVine (Morita Therapy Practioner) and Dr. Ogawa (Morita Therapy Scholar), with whom I was able to interact with as a student respondent on a panel at the conference. During my time in Tacoma, I along with other students, also participated in an intensive residential Morita treatment program. During this intensive residential, we were able experience many aspects of Morita Therapy in a practice setting. 10 Oxidation of Benzylic Methyl Groups on Pyrrole Compounds Using OXONE on Silica Gel Nicholas E. Sloop WTE Mentor: Sam Leung, Chemistry Based on the work by Fields et al, Oxone (KHSO₅) was used as an oxidizing agent with silica gel to pursue surface-mediated reactions to oxidize α-methylpyrroles to α-formylpyrroles. Previous work by research students Long and Flohrschutz provided a simple reaction that was carried out successfully and easily reproducible. However, the reaction time was long. In this study, to speed up the reaction, heat was applied and the ratio of Oxone and silica gel was adjusted. The reaction times were shortened from the 4-day range to as little as 1 day. 11 Karyotype Variation in Early Generation Polygeneric Wide Hybrids of Perennial Wheat Reegan AJ Miller Mentor: Matthew Arterburn, Biology Perennial wheat breeding lines are produced by crossing annual hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) with perennial wheatgrass species such as tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum elongatum, 2n = 14, EE) and intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium, 2n = 6x = 42, EEJJSS). The hybridization process is usually followed by doubling chromosome content with colchicine so that each chromosome has a pairing partner. These hybrids exhibit a perennial life cycle and are useful in sustainable agriculture systems. When these perennial wheat lines are used in crosses to other wheat varieties, subsequent generations experience considerable chromosome number variation. We performed cytological examination of a unique set of perennial wheat crosses, involving various Thinopyrum parents, that were performed without the use of colchicine. We examined F1, F2 and F3 specimens of these crosses. Expectedly, chromosome number varied considerably in the specimens examined. Fertility rates were very low and multiple specimens were completely sterile. We used genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) to identify the genome origins of the chromosomes present, and detected considerable variation among the alien chromosomes. 12 FTIR Analysis of Automotive Paint Chips Ryan Haller WTE Mentor: Holly O'Neill, Chemistry In criminal cases involving vehicles, automotive paint chips may require analysis and characterization in the forensic laboratory. In such cases, the bulk of the analysis and identification used to obtain such a list is accomplished using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy/Microscopy (FTIR Microscopy). Normally, each individual layer of a paint chip is first isolated using a stereomicroscope and a sharp blade, in a time and labor intensive process, followed by infrared analysis to identify vibrational modes such as carbonyl stretching bands, characteristic peaks in the fingerprint region, from 1000 to 600 cm-1, corresponding to the stereochemistry of the compounds, and sometimes vibrational modes in the far IR region, past 3000 cm-1.These vibrational modes translate to functional groups that are present in the binders and pigments in paint. Transmission is used in this technique instead of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) because ATR tends to cause peak shifting. The purpose of this study is to compare the FTIR data obtained from the layer isolation technique with that obtained using a faster and less labor-intensive cross-sectioning technique. Preliminary results suggest that cross- section analysis produces equally viable data, provided that each paint layer in the cross-section slice is approximately 10 microns or greater in thickness. 13 Implementing Community Service in Place of Suspension Andrea Stitt WTE Mentor: Richard Ellis, Center for Community Services The Youth Court program allows students who have been suspended from school to have positive learning experiences by completing community service hours. The number of community service hours is based on the intensity of the offense, frequency of offense, and number of offenses by the student. When students are suspended they miss out on learning in the classroom and can get behind in school work. This program allows the students to stay in school and complete their community service either after school or during the weekend. Adolescents who participated in a volunteer intervention program reported significantly greater intentions to become involved in political, community, and helping behaviors than those in the control group and viewed virtuous and altruistic behaviors as part of their self-worth (Snyder and Smith, 2015). Furthermore, increasing school engagement, rather than decreasing school engagement by expelling a student, acts as a deterrent for future delinquent behaviors (Keating, Tomishima, Foster, and Alessandri, 2002). Implementing community service in place of suspension would not only benefit the suspended students by increasing their learning and decreasing problematic behaviors, but also benefit the community by providing organizations with much needed service. 14 How Small is Too Small: Pushing the Limits of Aperture Size for Useful FTIR Data Collection for Forensic Automotive Paint Samples Dekeysha L. Cooper WTE Mentor: Holly O'Neill, Chemistry The collection of trace automotive paint samples in a forensic laboratory is a tedious and time- consuming process. Most forensic laboratories require analysts to isolate individual layers of the automotive paint chip to maximize the aperture area available for analysis by a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) Microscope. The FTIR spectra are interpreted to obtain information regarding the binders present in each layer. In this study, a complex 6-layer automotive paint chip was prepared and analyzed using two different slicing methods. The automotive paint chip was first sliced to isolate each layer then analyzed using an FTIR microscope and a variety of aperture sizes ranging from 25 microns x 120 microns to 4 x 120 microns. The resulting spectra from each aperture size were overlaid and compared. The same FTIR analysis was then performed for a cross-section slice of the same paint chip, and the spectra from all aperture sizes were overlaid and compared. Finally, the spectra from the smallest aperture size for each slicing technique were overlaid and compared. Initial results of this study show that while the baseline has some variation, spectra from the small aperture sizes have consistent overlap with spectra from the larger aperture sizes in the areas that lead to the classification of the binder. A comparison of the isolation spectra and the cross-sectional data shows similar results as well. 15 The Effect of Higher Cigarette Taxes on State Smoking Rates Skyler P. Urban WTE Mentor: Steven Cann, Political Science This study examines the effect of the cigarette tax rate on the percent of the population that smoke in each state. I compare the rate of smoking in 2005 to 2015 within each state. I then attempt to find any correlation or effect of taxes on smoking rates. Using regression, I find the correlation and the amount of variation in smoking rates that can be accounted for due to state tax rates. I also introduce, as an independent variable, if a state has put in place a comprehensive ban on smoking. Smoking bans have also seen a strong increase in popularity. This variable introduction makes it possible to show if raising the cigarette tax rate is, in fact, the best way to achieve lower smoking rates when considering popular state legislation. In this study, I intend to show that raising taxes on cigarettes has a measurable effect on reducing the state smoking rate. Throughout my analysis, I found that raising taxes on cigarettes can, in fact, account for a measurable decrease in the percentage of the state population that smokes. 16 Gun Control Laws and Their Effect on Gun-Related Death Talin A. Golightley WTE Mentor: Linsey Moddelmog, Political Science Forty-eight states in America have adopted at least one gun control law that prevents at-risk criminals from owning a gun legally. This study focused on determining if these gun control laws, compiled in a list by Shapiro, Chinoy, & Williams (2017), decreased gun death rates in the states that had adopted them using Center for Disease Control firearm mortality rate by state data from 2015. It has been determined in this study that gun control laws do have a negative impact on gun death rates. College education rates and unemployment rates also affect gun death rates negatively. 17 Effects of Emotional Regulation, Transformational Leadership, and Intervention Strategies on Burnout Zorrae M. Bowie WTE Mentor: RaLynn Schmalzried, Psychology Because of the emotional nature of care-giving professions such as social work, individuals are vulnerable to burnout. Feelings of burnout are associated with low levels of motivational resources, and have negative consequences for job performance, organizational culture, and an individual’s mental health. Reasearch has shown that burnout is one of the most influential aspects of worker disengagment thus it has costly effects for the organization (absenteeism, increased turnover) and has taxing emotional effects for the individual (mental health). The research for this project was centered on identifying what burnout is, how it impacts employee engagement and finding suggestions for reversing characteristics of burnout and improving organizational and individual outcomes. 18 What Did You Say?: Observing Public Speaking Training Through the Lens of Uncertainty Reduction Randall R. Smith WTE Mentor: Tracy Routsong, Communication Studies To be able to speak publicly is an important life skill. At a local youth organization, the afterschool program stresses that importance, to the point where there is a scholarship competition based not only on experiences, but on speaking skills. Using a training guide created by Washburn University through the theoretical framework of the Uncertainty Reduction Theory, this project observed the process of working with one student on speaking skills. 19 The Reduction of 2-Tosylamidoethyl Disulfide Keith R. Johnson Mentor: Shaun Schmidt, Chemistry A reduction of 2-tosylamidoethyl disulfide to 2-tosylamidoethanethiol was researched and experimented on over a course of a semester. The starting material of 2-tosylamidoethyl disulfide was prepared and was reduced to 2-tosylamidoethanethiol with various reducing agents which included DTT, BME, and NaBH4. The percent yield of the crude starting material is 30.15% and the purified starting material is 33.36%. Each product, including the starting material, was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance. The only reducing agent that was powerful enough to break the disulfide bond of 2-tosylamidoethyl disulfide was DTT, but with the added effect of DTT removing the tosyl group from the starting material. 20 Immersion into the Athletic Training Profession: National Athletic Trainers’ Association Student Leadership