Social vs. Individual Effects: The Impact of Flow and Communitas on Golfers' Enduring Involvement Moderated by Gender and Playing Frequency

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Gao, Tao
Gentry, James W.
McGinnis, Lee
Washburn University. School of Business
Kaw Valley Bank
Issue Date
September 2006
Alternative Title
This study explores the comparative effects of two antecedents of enduring involvement in determining whether social versus psychological effects are more important in establishing enduring involvement. Specifically, we look at effects of communitas--a social effect--and psychological flow--an individual psychological effect--to determine which has a stronger impact on one's enduring involvement in golf. We use support from self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate why flow is more important than communitas in establishing enduring involvement due to higher levels of volitional control. From a practical perspective, this should help sports managers determine which service environments or strategies (i.e., social atmosphere strategies versus game improvement strategies) to focus on when trying to establish loyal participants, thus reducing the churning effects that are prevalent in golf. We also examine the moderating effects of gender and playing frequency on the relationships between communitas and enduring involvement and between flow and enduring involvement.